Teacher: Good afternoon. May I speak to Emma’s parent?
Father: Afternoon. I’m her father. Who am I speaking to?
Teacher: This is Emma’s teacher Jane Carson calling from the Art Centre. I’m just calling to talk about her drama class at the centre.
Father: Oh, thank you for calling. How’s Emma doing in drama class? You know she just transferred here last month, unlike the others in her class who have been taking the course the whole semester since June. So I’m a bit worried that she might not fit in so well.
Teacher: There’s no need to worry. She exhibits a strong performance in her drama class.
Father: Is that so?
Teacher: Yes. She didn’t adapt to the new environment as quickly as I originally expected, and seemed a bit shy at first. But a few days later, she made a couple of friends and became more talkative and also more involved in class. Emma really is a role model for others (Q1), because she has always been an active participant during class. She voices her own ideas and is very creative.
Father: I didn’t expect that. But I can tell that she really enjoys the course, because she’s been talking about it at home frequently these past few weeks.
Teacher: That’s great to hear. Interest is always the best teacher. I also have to inform you that there’s been an adjustment in the timetable of the drama class next term.
Father: Why is that?
Teacher: It’s not that the music room that we currently use isn’t available. As there are too many enrolling for the coming semester, increased class size means that space is limited to house the whole class (Q2). Also the new classroom we use is not available during the current timeframe, so I’m afraid we have to change the time for it.
Father: I see. So when would it be?
Teacher: As you know, the current class begins at three fifteen. But the new time of the drama class would be a quarter to five. (Q3)
Father: I’m afraid I have errands to run during that time.
Teacher: On the other campus the class still begins at three fifteen, but for the campus Emma goes to, it is the only time available for drama class.
Father: Oh. I see. I have to make adjustments to my chore schedule then. No problem.
Father: Miss Carson, I’m thinking about signing Emma up for another art course. I’m
thinking about dance class.
Teacher: Dance class is a popular course here, a great choice for a child to shape up and have fun. But unfortunately, it is over-subscribed at the moment (Q4). I have to put you on the waiting list.
Father: That’s too bad. What else can I choose from then? Could you give me some advice?
Teacher: Sure. Emma could take singing class (Q5) as well. This would improve her musicality.
Father: Sounds good. When is that?
Teacher: It is held every Friday evening.
Father: That’s too bad. Emma already has a swimming class earlier that evening (Q5). It will be too late for her to come home if she takes this course.
Teacher: There is also a vocal course (Q6) available. Emma’s got a great voice, I’m sure she’ll stand out in the class.
Father: Tell me about it.
Teacher: The vocal course starts at 4.30 pm every Tuesday. It isn’t fully booked yet. Great teacher, experienced and beloved by students. The price is a bit higher though.
Father: How much is it?
Teacher: It’s 110 dollars.
Father: Oh, that’s too much, way over our budget (Q6). We have to cover the extra cost if we choose it.
Teacher: Or maybe Emma could take music class.
Father: What is it about? Learning about songs and musicals?
Teacher: Well, the students have the opportunity to play different instruments like the piano, drum and so on. They can also learn how to write music under professional guidance. (Q7)
Father: That’s exactly what Emma is eager to learn. How much would it cost? (Q8)
Teacher: It was 63 dollars last term. But this term it is 85 dollars (Q8), 22 dollars more than the original price.
Father: We can afford that. When does the course begin?
Teacher: The course starts on September 7th.
Father: Can we start one week later, on September 14th? My daughter will be on a trip to France with her Mom on the 7th. (Q9)
Teacher: No problem. And the teacher for the class is Jamal Curtis (Q10). Just contact him if you have any further questions regarding the course.
Father: Jamal Curtis? How do you spell Curtis?
Teacher: Oh, it’s C-U-R-T-I-S. (Q10)
Father: Thank you.
Good morning everyone and welcome to the Annual Ski and Snowboard Exhibition held from April 8th to 17th. I am Mary Granger, coordinator of the event this year. The 10-day event features many highlights. As a snow sports lover, I know you are looking forward to a great time here. Now I’d like to offer you some practical information about the whole event and what to expect from it.
This might be the first time coming here for some of you. So for those who are still wondering about the right accommodation, I recommend Sky Hotel. It has its own health and sports clubs just like most of the hotels here, but I love it because of its incredibly cozy beds which guarantees good rest after an exhausting day of exploration (Q11). If you haven’t brought your own equipment, like poles, boots and skis, they are available for purchase or rent at Ski Set or Snow Rental.
The exhibition this year provides a colorful look into the history of skiing and an inspiring peek into the future prospects of the sport. Apart from the fascinating photo exhibitions and the most up-to-date skiing gear like always, this year we have added four computers which can imitate the process of skiing, ensuring the same physical activity and sensations that appear during the skiing process on downhill slopes (Q12). But I have to warn you that it might be quite time-consuming to line up for the free trial experience.
Many have posed the question as to how to enter the skiing and snowboarding competition (Q13). Well, rather than filling out the back of the entrance ticket or bombarding the committee with emails, the most effective method is by checking out the exhibition newsletter delivered every month for availability (Q13). As the most beloved local event, the exhibition has also drawn attention from the press. Last year, massive media coverage was on the worrisome amount of snowfall. In order to avoid the same predicament, several artificial skiing slopes have been built. With more participants this year, we have lowered the entrance fee which has been widely reported by local newspapers. (Q14)
A bonus for our participants is the ski program. It offers a wide variety of lessons and sessions with qualified instructors ensuring that all ages and abilities are catered to from the first timers to seasoned amateurs. I strongly advise you to sign up for the program as it is offering an unprecedented 30% discount. That’s mainly because we are cooperating with the program organiser who promises affordable prices only for the participants of the festival this year. (Q15)
Now I would like to introduce to you the list of presentations during the following week so that you can better plan your schedule.
The first presenter Simon is one of our best ski instructors. As an experienced instructor, he will inform you about the dangers that face skiers and snowboarders (Q16). Accidents happen mostly to those who are careless or ignorant. Good risk management involves considering both the probability and consequences of an accident.
The next speech titled Solution is given by Jamie Kurt. A list of problems may occur to novice skiers and snowboarders, so he is going to offer useful information for first timers on choosing the appropriate gears, the right dress code and ways of protecting your skin (Q17). For instance, some of you may have rented the skiing equipment, but rental footwear is notoriously uncomfortable. Then Jamie will provide instructions to help make your footwear fit better.
The third speech is about a documentary introducing skiing and snowboarding and the difference between the two sports. It also depicts a group of snow lovers exploring new slopes with breath-taking views (Q18). The director Andy Fisher will be there, addressing the whole shooting experience.
The fourth talk is about the tricks of skiing, presented by Harry Tyson. It is most useful for those who have already tried skiing, yet still need more practice to master the sport. Harry will teach you how to turn more skillfully (Q19). A lot of people can keep their skis roughly parallel but there’s no point if you make it hard to work with and slide around out of control. Useful exercises will also be suggested to improve your parallel skiing technique so that you can tackle steeper slopes and enjoy yourself more.
Johnson Smith will be the last presenter, mainly addressing towards advanced skiers. He manages to apply snow climbing into skiing (Q20). Climbing in soft snow, you are floundering around. Walking becomes harder, so a good trick during climbing is to maintain a wider gait, approximately shoulder width, so that you are more stable while walking. This works for skiing as well.
Tutor: Jerry, how did it go with preparing your lessons? Is there anything you would like to discuss?
Jerry: Well, this is actually the first time that I have ever taught in an elementary classroom. After 8 years of learning pedagogy, I want to practice what I’ve learned in an instructive manner, but I’m a bit stuck right now. You know the topic 1 want them to research is a bit hard for pupils. I’m afraid that they won’t be able to handle it on their own. So I need new ideas on designing more effective teaching methods. Mr. Carter, do you have any suggestions?
Tutor: Well, you should probably read this book called Professional Learning, written by J.K. Simmons. He is a professor who just transferred here last semester but is already popular amongst the students for his creative teaching methods (Q21). There is an extensive range of learning approaches mentioned in the book including approaches for team research (Q22), which might be helpful to you.
Jerry: You mean dividing the students into groups to do research? I’ve never thought of this before. How does it work?
Tutor: Professor Simmons has already demonstrated how efficient this approach can be. Basically it aims to increase cooperation between students so they can present the results in a collaborative fashion (Q23). It helps them to develop their own voice and perspective.
Jerry: I’ll check out the book as soon as possible. It seems I can borrow some of the essential concepts and work them into my course design.
Jerry: Well, I was thinking maybe I could use both observation and nonobservation as part of my teaching methodology. Could you take a look at my teaching plan?
Tutor: Sure. What kind of observational methods do you have in mind?
Jerry: For the observational part, I intend to include two approaches. First, the pupils can assess each other’s behaviour (Q24). I feel that reviewing fellow students through criteria-based reference evaluation allows constructive feedback. It can also improve their understanding of the subject material.
Tutor: That’s a smart move for a large class that would be hard to observe all by yourself. Also, you might want to get the feedback from several different individuals rather than just one. So how do you plan to carry out the peer assessments?
Jerry: Oh, every pupil will be required to write a diary, which includes group projects, presentations and in-class discussions. They’ll put down their remarks. I’ll collect them on a regular basis which can also help me see whether they can keep up or not. (Q25)
Tutor: Good, what else do you intend to do?
Jerry: Besides that, I also plan to do video recording (Q26). I’ve already purchased a camera just in case I miss anything important. I can go back and review their performances anytime I want.
Tutor: Would you record every in-class activity?
Jerry: No, I’ll just keep track of an in-class simulation (Q27), which would require every pupil to fully participate. Students will act as members of a City Council meeting, discussing issues like whether or not prohibition should be instated in the United States.
Tutor: This kind of teaching method is both inspiring and challenging. I can’t wait to see how yours work out. Do you send me a copy of the assessment afterwards, will you?
Jerry: No problem.
Tutor: So what do you have in mind for the non-observational approaches?
Jerry: Well, my plan is to quantify the statistics. Numbers do not lie. It is the most direct way to measure their performance. See how well they’ve learned.
Tutor: Where does the data come from?
Jerry: I’ll evaluate the test results including the mid-term (Q28), final exam and pop quizzes, which would only take up about 40 percent of the overall assessment.
Tutor: Sounds like a lot of tests and assignments. Please remember that you don’t want to wear out your students. Keeping them engaged is the key to efficient learning. Once they are exhausted, they just stop trying.
Jerry: Oh, I haven’t thought about that. You are right. I don’t want to frighten them with tons of assignments and exams. I’ll make note of that. Thanks for the advice.
Tutor: I remember last time you mentioned questionnaires, right?
Jerry: That’s true. But it is not for my students. In fact, they have to design their own questionnaires and choose the respondents using the Internet (Q29). As a complement of other teaching activities, it would deepen the creative learning process.
Tutor: Is that all?
Jerry: Oh, the pupils will have to conduct interviews of their own (Q30). And for this, they get to choose anyone they like, including relatives, friends and acquaintances to answer the questions.
Tutor: Seems to me that you have figured out most of your teaching methods. But you still need to polish some of the activities…
Good afternoon and welcome to my talk on urban migration today. The world has experienced unprecedented urban growth in the recent decades. As much as 3% of Earth’s landmass has been urbanised, an increase of at least 50% over previous estimates. Today, people living in cities already outnumber those in rural areas and the trend does not appear to be reversing. In addition, cities have larger amounts of carbon consumption than rural areas. (Q31)
This is a result from two major aspects. First, with the increase of urban population around the world, the massive construction of urban infrastructure and residential housing is hard to avoid. Second, urban households have a higher rate of car ownership and use more gasoline products.
Even though rural exodus is often negatively judged, there are also benefits of migration shared by the local environment and the society as a whole. Well, firstly, global trends of increasing urban migration and population urbanisation can provide opportunities for nature conservations, particularly in regions where deforestation is driven by agriculture. As rural dwellers leave their homes, local forests are left to recover. (Q32)
What’s more, it is easier for city dwellers to get around. Living in the country means transport can be very difficult (Q33). For instance, after midnight there are no buses or taxis in the countryside. However, there is still a number of public transport modes to choose from in the city.
Finally, with more funds and advanced technology, cities endeavour to produce clean energy. New power plants have been built to take harmful methane gas created by the decomposition of rubbish, and convert it into electricity (Q34). By doing so, an important greenhouse gas is turned into useful energy rather than being directly emitted into the atmosphere.
The hustle and bustle of city life offers women: he opportunity to explore different professions and pursue their own careers. Women in cities work as engineers, managers and even football players. This change of roles has affected their marital status and family life. More women are choosing their careers over marriage, which raises the graph of late marriages. As a result, more are remaining single well into their late thirty’s. They want to be independent and earn money on their own. It is also easier for them to get a promotion while working in the city (Q35). Women are slowly achieving wider participation at work, while in rural areas the mindset is still very conservative.
However, cities also change the way that humans interact with each other and the environment, often causing multiple problems. In general, urban wages are significantly higher, so moving to the city is an opportunity to earn what was impossible in rural areas. However, the wage difference is often offset by the higher cost of living and absence of self-produced goods, including subsistence farming. A sizable proportion of new comers attach greater importance to money and gradually abandon their former way of life, thus risking losing their culture. (Q36)
These new city residents are also faced with another problem. According to statistics, crime rates are significantly higher in densely populated urban regions than in rural areas (Q37). For instance, property crime rates in our metropolitan areas are three to four times as high in comparison to the rates in rural communities. Immigrants, upon arrival into cities, typically move into the poor, blighted neighbourhoods because that is where they can afford to live. Crime in these areas is high and reflects poor living conditions, as these neighbourhoods experience great levels of poverty. This pattern also occurs for violent crimes, which is much more common in large urban areas than elsewhere.
In addition, traffic congestion and industrial manufacturing are prominent features of the urban landscape, which take their toll on the natural environment and those who depend on it. Air pollution from both cars and factory emissions affect the health of countless urban residents. (Q38)
Rural to urban migration can boost the urban economy. With a better economy, cities provide their residents with better welfare. But the concentration of services and facilities, such as education, health and technology in urban areas inevitably contributes to greater energy consumption (Q39). Another problem with life in the city is traffic congestion. It makes people late to work and thus stresses us out before we even get there (Q40). Deliveries can’t arrive on time. Gas costs money. The quality of life of those commuters starts to decline. What’s worse is that if congestion makes it harder to match the right workers to the best jobs, it is economically inefficient, as well.
5 D 6 B
7 write music
8 85/eighty five
9 14th September/ September 14th/ September 14/ 14 September
21 Professional Learning
22 team (research)
23 the result/results
24 behaviour(s) / behavior(s)
26 video recording
28 test results
29 the internet/ internet
33 transportation/ transport