Peter: Hello, I’m new in the area and I’d like to join the library please.
Will: That’s no problem. Let me get an application form. Here we are. Now all we have to do is fill this in and then I’ll get you to sign and you’ll be a member.
W: Now then. What’s your full name?
P: Peter Adrian Camden.
W: How do you spell Camden?
P: C-A-M-D-E-N. (Q1)
P: Yes, that’s right.
W: Right, and what’s your address?
P: Flat 553 Green street, Finsbury. (Q2)
W: Ok. Got that. That’s near here isn’t it?
P: Yes, just 5 minutes walk.
W: What’s the post code?
P: 7424.. I..I mean, sorry, 7 4 3 4. (Q3)
W: Got that now. Now, can you tell me your date of birth?
P: 8th of July, 1976. (Q4)
W: And, what’s your telephone number?
P: Well, I don’t have a home number but I’ve got a mobile.
W: That’ll do fine.
P: It’s o six six three four nine eight two seven four six. Did you get that?
W: Some of it. Can you say it again?
P: The code’s 06634 and the number’s then 982 746. (Q5)
W: Right. That’s almost it. Now I need some kind of identification to prove where you live. Do you have a driving license or a passport or anything like that?
P: I’m afraid that everything I have, has got my old address on it. Do you need it now?
W: No, not now, but you won’t be able to take anything out until we see that.
P: Wait a minute. I’ve got a letter addressed to me here that arrived this morning. Will that do?
W: Oh yes. That’s a good idea. That will be fine. Let’s look. Ok. Well, that’s that finished.
W: Could I ask you a few questions? The Council that runs the library is running a survey to find out what kind of books people prefer so that they can direct their buying.
P: Yeah, no problem.
W: OK. So, what type of books do you like?
P: Well, I’m very keen on mysteries (Q6). You know, when a detective is trying to find out who did the murder. Historical novels interest me too (Q7). Romance never! My sister loves them but they bore me to tears. I quite like books on animals too (Q8). I get them out sometimes. Not science fiction either. Too weird.
W: Well, I think that’s it then.
P: Good. Oh, do you charge anything?
W: The library is free (Q9) unless you want to rent out some of our videos or DVDs.
P: How much is that?
W: Well, we rent videos out for four dollars each and DVDs are six dollars. You must leave us a deposit for $60 of$60 as well. That’s returnable of course. (Q10)
P: I don’t think I’ll get any of those just yet. Can I pay later?
W: Sure, just give the money in when you’re ready to rent them out.
P: Well thanks very much. You’ve been very helpful. I might take a book out now for the weekend, if that’s OK?
W: Go ahead.
M: Well, goodbye.
Interviewer: Hello everyone. I’ve just been joined in the studio by Dr. Matthew Johnson. Dr. Johnson works at Westley General hospital and he is here today to tell us all about giving blood. Good morning Matthew.
Matthew: Good morning.
Interviewer: So, Matthew. Why is it important for us to give blood ?
Matthew: Donating blood is not important. It’s actually vital that people do this. Without donated blood, thousands of people would die every year and it’s something that could affect everyone.
We all expect blood to be there for us, but barely a fraction of those who can give, do. Yet sooner or later, virtually all of us will face a time of great vulnerability in which we will need blood. And that time is all too often unexpected. The need for blood is great. On any given day, an average of 38 thousand units of red blood cells are needed. Blood transfusions are often needed for victims of things such as accidents and burns (Q11), heart surgery, organ transplants (Q12), and patients receiving treatment for leukaemia, cancer (Q13) or other diseases. In 2002, nearly 29 million units of blood components were transfused. And with an aging population and advances in medical treatments and procedures requiring blood transfusions, the demand for blood continues to increase.
Interviewer: We really need that much?
Matthew: Yes. And we need it now. Blood supplies nationwide have reached critically low levels, with less than one day’s supply of several blood types. Thousands of accident victims, cancer patients, premature babies (Q14) and countless others who need blood to stay alive are hoping you’ll care enough to help them. All blood types are needed.
Interviewer: What are the different types?
Matthew: It’s a bit more complicated than that. First we collect the whole blood from donors and then it’s sorted into the different types which are basically O, A, B or AB though there are also divisions here. Then the blood is split into its constituent parts. We divide it into 4 basic parts. First there are the red blood cells, then the white blood cells, then things called platelets and finally plasma. This is shipped off to hospitals where they use the blood parts that the patients need.
Interviewer: What are the different parts used for?
Matthew: Well, as I said before the whole blood is your blood in its natural state and something we rarely use. It’s much more useful to us to have it separated into its component parts. Red blood cells are what everyone associates with blood, i.e.: it’s red. It’s widely used to replace lost blood during surgery or when people hemorrhage. Its main function is to carry oxygen to cells (Q15). White blood cells are the most important part of the body’s immune system (Q16) and they’re used for patients whose normal defense systems aren’t working properly. Platelets are crucial for making your blood clot and we need to give them to patients who suffer from illnesses that deplete their natural levels of platelets or they will bleed to death. Finally, plasma is what carries the other parts of blood around (Q17) and needs to be administered with any of the other components. Take away the red blood cells and this is actually yellow.
Interviewer: So, that’s what blood is all about. Now, you’re here in Westley today to collect blood. Can you tell us where and when we can donate?
Matthew: Of course! We’re set up here today, that’s Wednesday, and for the next two days at Westley General Hospital at the Outpatients Department (Q18). Come along between 9am and 4.30pm (Q19) and we’ll be able to deal with you within one hour. And let me tell you a few things that will calm your fears about giving blood. Aside from a brief needle prick, it doesn’t hurt to give blood. Your body will replace the blood you donate within days of your donation. And finally you can’t catch AIDS, hepatitis or any other disease by giving blood. And of course, you get a cup of tea and a biscuit afterward .
Interviewer: And can anyone give blood?
Matthew: Almost everyone. Donors must be in generally good health, be at least 17 years of age (Q20), weigh no less than 110 pounds, have not received a tattoo within the past year and not have donated whole blood within the past 56 days. We screen donors with a series of questions before we take the blood so, if you’re unsure, come down and we’ll let you know. Please come down and see us. Remember, if you can donate one pint of blood, this can save up to three lives.
Interviewer: Well, thanks Matthew. I for one will definitely be going down to Westley General to donate.
Jim Hello there. Do you work in the computer room? Yes, I do. Can I help you?
Jim Well, I’m a first year and I know that I’ll need to use the computer room for my work as I don’t have a computer of my own. So, I thought I’d get down here and see what I have to do in order to get time on one of the university’s computers.
Dave OK. There are 4 computer labs open to undergraduates. The others can only be used by the staff (Q21) and postgraduates. The names of the 4 labs that you can use are Wimborne, Franklin, Salisbury and Court. Wimborne and Court are in this building, the Johnson building, Franklin is in the Computer Sciences building and Salisbury is in the library. (Q22)
Jim So I can use them whenever I like?
Dave Well, you can use them but not whenever you like. As you can imagine they’re in quite a lot of demand so you have to reserve your time on a computer. In each of the labs there is a reservation book and you can reserve your time on a computer in that for 2 hours daily (Q23). If a computer is free though you can go on it straight away. It’s quite straightforward but be sure to always write your name in the reservation book in pen (Q24) or someone can rub it out and put their name in instead
Jim Oh my God! Does that really happen?
Dave I’m afraid so. And far more often than you would think. When people are stressed about their assignments they’d, they’ll do anything to get some time on the computers. Better not try it yourself though or you’ll be banned from the computers for the rest of the academic year and your password and user name will be taken away.
Jim That reminds me. I’ve got to get a user name and password . How do I go about that then?
Dave Well, what I’ll do is pass you over to my colleague, Jane, as she’s in charge of all that. Jane!
Jane Yes Dave.
Dave I’ve got a new student here wanting to find out about user names and passwords. Can you help him out with that?
Jane Yeah sure. Hi there.
Jane Well, it’s a straightforward process. First of all tell me your name and I’ll type it into the system.
Jim James Smith.
Jane Right, let me do that. You see all students are automatically given a user name and then they just choose a password themselves. OK. So, your user name is James smith – – that’s all small case. That means there must be more than one of you at the university at the moment. Well, what do you want your password to be? (Q25)
Jim I think I’ll choose biology (Q25), as that’s the subject that I’m studying though my girlfriend Mary will be upset that it’s not her name I’m using.
Jane Well, that’s all done. You can now use any of the four undergraduate computer labs.
Jim By the way, can I print out stuff at the labs?
Jane Yes you can but sometimes it’s not quick. When you print it goes into a queue and it will be left in a tray in Franklin (Q26), as that’s where all the main printers are. The good bit is that, although last year it cost 3 pence per page, now it doesn’t cost you anything. (Q27)
Jim I don’t really know much about computing. Is there any training available?
Jane Yes. We have introductory courses for all new students. There is beginner, intermediate and advanced. Which would you like to go for?
Jim Well, I have done some but I don’t know if I’m up to anything more than beginner (Q28). I’d better stick with that. intermediate could be too tough.
Jane Well your course is in Franklin then (Q29). We’re in Court now. You know where that is?
Jim That’s in this building too, isn’t it?
Jane No that’s Wimborne you’re thinking about. Franklin’s over in the Computer Sciences Building. Anything else?
Jim I don’t know what time the course starts.
Jane Let’s have a look then. Advanced starts at 4:30 in the afternoon on Mondays but yours is the day after at 5 in the afternoon. (Q30)
Jim Are there any other times as I’ve got a part time job then.
Jane Yes. You could try Thursday at 2.00 pm. How’s that?
Jim Even worse as I’ve a tutorial then. Anything else?
Jane No. That’s it.
Jim I’ll have to rearrange work then. I can’t miss the tutorial.
Good afternoon everyone. In today’s seminar we are going to continue listening to different students giving us a presentation on the subject of their term paper. Now today is Hillary’s turn. So, what are you going to talk about today Hillary?
Well, some of you will know that I was brought up when I was young in Japan and I’m going to do my term paper on Japan’s bullet trains, which have revolutionized their rail industry. Japan’s main island Honshu is covered by a network of high speed train lines that connect Tokyo with most of the island’s major cities and Fukuoka on the island of Kyushu. Japan’s high-speed trains are called shinkansen but are known to us bullet trains. The Japanese bullet train system is credited with being the world’s first purpose built high-speed railway, and the model and inspiration for all other similar type systems running today such as the French TGV. The reputation it has earned for safety, speed and punctuality is unsurpassed. I’d like to give you some figures about that. As regards safety, there has never been a death on the bullet train system since it’s inception in 1964 (Q31), other than that caused by deliberate passenger misadventure. As far as speed is concerned the bullet train holds the current world records for the fastest average speed (Q32) between two station stops, which was 260 1.8 kph between Hiroshima and Kokura. The train travelled 192 kilometers in 44 minutes. This record is from the 500 series “Nozomi” trains running at a maximum speed of 300 kilometers an hour between Shin-Osaka and Hakata. I’ll talk more about them later. The punctuality puts European train services to shame. Most trains arrive at their destination, after several hours, to within the second!
In one year, the total time that all bullets trains were late by was 12 seconds (Q33)! This statistic is hard to believe but it would be difficult to prove otherwise and that’s what the rail authorities in Japan have told us.
Now I’d like to tell you a bit about their history. The first bullet train was introduced in 1964 by Central & West Japan Railways for the Tokyo to Osaka route. Most of these old trains have now been discontinued. There have been several bullet train models since then. The most recent ones have been the 300, 500 and 700 series and it’s the 500 series one that can travel at 300 kph. The bullet trains operating in Japan today are of the three following categories: Nozomi, Hikari and Kodama. The Nozomi trains stop only at the most important stations (Q34), and reach Osaka from Tokyo in only about two and a half hours and it’s the most modern of bullet trains that serve as Nozomi. Hikari trains stop a little bit more frequently than Nozomi trains, and need roughly three hours to reach Osaka from Tokyo. Kodama trains stop at all stations (Q35) and they are the local trains among bullet trains. Older models of bullet trains serve as Kodama.
I’d like now to talk a little bit about the technology involved in bullet trains. The Shinkansen bullet trains consist of electrically powered cars. That means basically all individual cars are equipped with electric motor driving systems. This is in contrast to locomotive trains in which the locomotive pulls the passenger coaches. The realization of the high-speed Shinkansen with the electric train system had a great significance. The French “Train a Grande Vitesse” or TGV runs on a centralised power system (Q36), in which the heavyweight, high-output locomotives at both ends pull the passenger coaches. It’s a system suitable to European railways, which run basically on straight tracks in wide plains with solid foundations. However it is unsuitable in Japan where the ground is flimsy and the tracks full of curves and undulations and inter-city distances are short (Q37), making it necessary for the trains to accelerate and decelerate frequently. One of the advantages of the electric car system is that the motor functions as a brake to reduce the speed of the train (Q38). When the power feed to the electric car motors is stopped, the wheels continue revolving, keeping the motors rotating, resulting in electricity generation by magnetic induction (Q39). As the force acts in the direction opposite to the axles motion, it functions as a brake to the train. All the motors equipped on each coach can be utilized effectively to reduce the speed, making the electric train system advantageous on Japanese railways, which involve frequent deceleration and acceleration. In addition, by virtue of the remarkable progress achieved recently in semiconductor technologies, the electric train system has undergone tremendous improvements in power, operability and safety administration, so the system is becoming increasingly advantageous. (Q40)
5 06634 982 746
6-8 A, D, F
10 $6/ 6 dollars/ six dollars
12 heart surgery/ organ transplants
13 patients with leukaemia/ cancer
14 premature babies
15 Carrying/ carry oxygen
16 immune/ defence system
17 carrying/ carry/ carries
20 17 years
23 2 hours
24 in pen
27 nothing, free
32 fastest average speed
33 12 seconds
34 most important stations
35 all stations
36 centralized/centralised power system
39 magnetic Induction
40 semiconductor technologies