In paragraph A, the Industrial Revolution is first mentioned. Besides, two questions are raised: “Why did this particular Big Bang-the world-changing birth of industry – happen in Britain? And why did it strike at the end of the 18th century?” Thanks to these questions, we know that the Industrial Revolution happened in Britain at the end of the 18th century.
=>ANSWER: iv: The time and place of the Industrial Revolution.
In paragraph B, the writer mentions factors needed for industry to take off, namely the technology and power to drive factories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour, easy transport to move goods around, an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects, a market-driven economy and a political system that allows this to happen. In other words, all of these factors are conditions required for industrialization.
– conditions = factors
=>ANSWER: viii: Conditions required for industrialization.
The main idea of paragraph C is “Tea and beer, two of the nation’s favorite drinks, fuelled the revolution.” They are important to Britain’s industrial revolution because the antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters…”
=>ANSWER: vii: Two keys to Britain’s industrial Revolution.
In paragraph D, the author argues that “there was a burst in population growth”, then he lists four questions which were suggested as causes of this burst.
– increase in population =population growth
=>ANSWER: i: The search for the reasons for an increase in population.
In paragraph E, Macfarlane says “For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer. But in the late 17th century a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s, the mortality rate began to rise again. Then it suddenly dropped again.” This means that the English changed their drinking habits, which changed the mortality rate, as well.
=>ANSWER: vi: Changes in drinking habits in Britain
In paragraph F, Macfarlane compares Britain with Japan. While both countries were developing cities about the same time and also had no sanitation, water-borne diseases had a much looser grip on the Japanese population than those in Britain. Thanks to this comparison, Macfarlane found out that “the history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates”.
=>ANSWER: ix: Comparisons with Japan lead to the answer.
In paragraph G, Macfarlane notes that although 17th-century Japan had some of the conditions for an industrial revolution (“Japan had large cities, high literacy rates, even a futures market”), it gave up labour-saving devices such as animals, because they were afraid that they would put people out of work.
– industrial revolution=industrialisation
– fear=be afraid
– unemployment=out of work
=>ANSWER: ii: Industrialisation and the fear of unemployment
8. NOT GIVEN
Question: China’s transport system was not suitable for industry in the 18th century
Keywords: China, transport, not suitable, 18th century
“China” is mentioned in paragraphs B and F. China and the 18th century are referred to in paragraph F. However, in these paragraphs, the writer does not say anything about China’s transport system. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
Question: Tea and beer both helped to prevent dysentery in Britain
Keywords: tea, beer, prevent dysentery
In paragraph C, the author argues that “The antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters without succumbing to water-borne diseases such as dysentery.” The active ingredients in tea and beer prevent the British from succumbing to dysentery. So, the statement is TRUE.
– prevent dysentery = without succumbing to… dysentery
Question: Roy Porter disagrees with Professor Macfarlane’s findings
Keywords: disagree, Roy Porter
At the end of paragraph C, “Macfarlane’s case has been strengthened by support from notable quarters- Roy Porter…recently wrote a favourable appraisal of his research”. This means that Roy Porter agrees with Macfarlane’s findings. So, the statement is FALSE.
Question: After 1740, there was a reduction in population in Britain
Keywords: after 1740, reduction, population.
In paragraph D, “Between 1650 and 1740, the population in Britain was static. But then there was a burst in population growth.” This means that after 1740, there was an increase in population in Britain. So, the statement is FALSE.
12. NOT GIVEN
Question: People in Britain used to make beer at home.
Keywords: make beer, home
Beer is mentioned in paragraphs C and E. In the text, the author just mentions that “the antiseptic properties of tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and hops in beer – plus the fact that both are made with boiled water – allowed urban communities to flourish at close quarters…” and that “We drank beer. For a long time, the English were protected by the strong antibacterial agent in hops, which were added to help preserve the beer.” There is no information about whether the British used to make beer at home. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
Question: The tax on malt indirectly caused a rise in the death rate.
Keywords: tax on malt, indirectly, rise, death rate
At the end of paragraph E, “But in the late 17th century, a tax was introduced on malt, the basic ingredient of beer. The poor turned to water and gin and in the 1720s the mortality rate began to rise again.” This means that the introduction of tax on malt led people to turning to water and gin, which caused a rise in the mortality rate. So, the statement is TRUE.
– death rate=mortality rate
Question: a reference to the influence of the domestic background on the gifted child.
Key words: influence, domestic background, gifted child
We need to find out some information about “domestic background” in the text. In paragraph A, the author refers to the importance of “home educational provision” and “reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home etc”. “Giftedness” is related to “educational backup” at home.
Question: reference to what can be lost if learners are given too much guidance
Keywords: what lost, too much guidance
We need to find out some information about “too much guidance” provided. In paragraph D, the author indicates that “Conversely, teachers who have a tendency to ‘overdirect’ can diminish their gifted pupils’ learning autonomy…Too much dependence on the teacher risks loss of autonomy and motivation to discover.” This means that too much help from teachers causes students’ autonomy and motivation to be lost.
– overdirect=too much guidance
Question: a reference to the damaging effects of anxiety.
Keywords: effects, anxiety
We need to find out some information about anxiety. In paragraph F, the author argues that “Fear, for example, can limit the development of curiosity, which is a strong force in scientific advance, because it motivates problem-solving behaviour. So, fear, or anxiety, has negative effects on the development of curiosity.
Question: examples of classroom techniques which favour socially-disadvantaged children.
Keywords: techniques, socially-disadvantaged children.
We need to find out some information about disadvantaged children. At the end of paragraph D, “There are quite a number of new methods which can help, such as child-initiated learning, ability peer tutoring, etc. Such practices have been found to be particularly useful for, or in other words ‘favour’, bright children from deprived areas.” So, some classroom techniques such as child-initiated learning, ability-peer tutoring, etc are very useful for socially-disadvantaged children.
Question: Less time can be spent on exercises with gifted pupils who produce accurate work.
Keywords: Less time, exercises
In paragraph C, Shore and Kanevsky say “If the gifted merely think more quickly, then we need only teach more quickly. If they merely make fewer errors, then we can shorten the practice.”
– produce accurate work=make fewer errors
– less time spent on exercises=shorten the practice
Question: Self-reliance is a valuable tool that helps gifted students reach their goals.
Keywords: self-reliance, reach goals
In paragraph E, Simonton concludes that “above a certain high level, characteristics such as independence seemed to contribute more to reaching the highest levels of expertise than intellectual skills, due to the great demands of effort and time needed for learning and practice.”
– goals=the highest levels of expertise
Question: Gifted children know how to channel their feelings to assist their learning.
Keywords: channel feelings, assist learning
In the last paragraph, “In Boekaerts’ (1991) review of emotion in the learning of very high IQ and highly achieving children, she found emotional forces in harness. They (gifted children) were not only curious, but often had a strong desire to control their environment, improve their learning efficiency, and increase their own learning resources.”
– channel their feelings=emotional forces in harness
– assist their learning=improve their learning efficiency
Question: The very gifted child benefits from appropriate support from close relatives.
Keywords: benefits, support from relatives.
In paragraph A, “A very close relationship was found when children’s IQ scores were compared with their home educational provision. The higher the children’s IQ scores, especially over IQ 130, the better the quality of their educational backup, measured in terms of reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home, etc” The researcher mentioned in this paragraph is Freeman.
– support from close relatives=educational backup/ home educational provision
Question: Really successful students have learnt a considerable amount about their subject.
Keywords: learnt a considerable amount.
In paragraph E, “individuals who know a great deal about a specific domain will achieve at a higher level than those who do not.”
– Really successful=achieve at a higher level
– learnt a considerable amount=know a great deal
– subject =specific domain
23. books - activities
Question: One study found a strong connection between children’s IQ and the availability of…………… and………….. at home.
Keywords: connection, children’s IQ, at home.
In paragraph A, the writer argues that “A very close… relationship was found when children’s IQ scores were compared with their home educational provision. The higher the children’s IQ scores, especially over IQ 130, the better the quality of their educational backup, measured in terms of reported verbal interactions with parents, number of books and activities in their home, etc”
– a strong connection=a very close relationship
24. internal regulation
Question: Children of average ability seem to need more direction from teachers because they do not have………….
Keywords: average, more direction, they do not have
We need to find out some information about average-ability children. In paragraph B, the author indicates that “There appears to be a qualitative difference in the way the intellectually highly able think, compared with more average-ability or older pupils, for whom external regulation by the teachers often compensates for lack of internal regulation.”
– do not have=lack(v)
25. emotional awareness
Question: Metacognition involves children understanding their own learning strategies, as well as developing……………
Keywords: metacognition, developing
We need to find out the information about metacognition. In paragraph B, “To be at their most effective in their self-regulation, all children can be helped to identify their own ways of learning-metacognition-which include strategies of planning, monitoring, evaluation, and choice of what to learn. Emotional awareness is also part of metacognition, so children should be helped to be aware of their feelings around the area to be learned.”
Question: Teachers who rely on what is known as…..often produce sets of impressive grades in class tests.
Keywords: rely on, produce impressive grades, tests.
In paragraph D, “Although ‘spoon-feeding’ can produce extremely high examination results, these are not always followed by equally impressive life successes.”
– extremely high=impressive
Keywords: museums, novels
We need to find out why people do not go to museums to read original manuscripts of novels. At the beginning of paragraph 2, the writer argues that “This might be explained by the fact that the novel has evolved precisely because of technological developments that made it possible to printout huge numbers of texts, whereas oil paintings have always been produced as unique objects.” This means that, unlike original paintings which are unique, novels are available in such huge number that people do not want to go to museums to read original manuscripts.
– mass production=print out huge numbers
Keywords: novels, most important
In paragraph 2, “With novels, the reader attends mainly to the meaning of words rather than the way they are printed on the page.” So, the reader finds the meaning of words most important.
– mainly=most important
– underlying ideas=the meaning of words
Keywords: artists, instruct, copies.
In paragraph 3, the author indicates that “…in the 16th century, artists seemed perfectly content to assign the reproduction of their creations to their workshop apprentices as regular ‘bread and butter’ work”
Keywords: excellent replication, colour, surface relief
In paragraph 3, “And today the task of reproducing pictures is incomparably more simple and reliable, with reprographic techniques that allow the production of high-quality prints made exactly to the original scale, with faithful colour values, and even with duplication of the surface relief of the painting.” So, besides surface relief features and faithful colour values, new methods allow the copies made exactly to the original scale. This means that the copies have the same size as the original novel.
Question: It is regrettable that museums still promote the superiority of original works of art, since this may not be in the interests of the…
Keywords: promote, original works, not in the interests of
In paragraph 5, “Unfortunately, this seems to place severe limitations on the kind of experience offered to visitors.” Because “museums still promote the special status of original work” [paragraph 4], this may not be in the interests of visitors, or the public.
– the public=visitors
Question: The writer mentions London’s National Gallery to illustrate…
Keywords: London’s National Gallery
In paragraph 6, the author argues that “In addition, a major collection like that of London’s National Gallery is housed in numerous rooms, each with dozens of works, any one of which is likely to be worth more than all the average visitor possesses. In a society that judges the personal status of the individual so much by their material worth, it is therefore difficult not to be impressed by one’s own relative ‘worthlessness’ in such an environment.” This means that London’s National Gallery is mentioned to illustrate the negative effect a museum can have on visitors’ opinions of themselves.
Question: The writer says that today, viewers may be unwilling to criticise a work because
Keywords: unwilling, criticise a work
In paragraph 7, “…since these works were originally produced, they have been assigned a huge monetary value by some person or institution more powerful than themselves”, therefore, they are not willing to criticise a work because they feel that their reaction is useless.
Question: According to the writer, the ‘displacement effect’ on the visitor is caused by
Keywords: displacement effect, caused by
In paragraph 8, “The visitor may be struck by the strangeness of seeing such diverse paintings, drawings and sculptures brought together in an environment for which they were not originally created.” This means that the ‘displacement effect’ is caused by the variety of works on display and the way they are arranged. Such paintings were never intended to be displayed in that way.
Question: The writer says that unlike other forms of art, a painting does not
In paragraph 9, the author says that “a fundamental difference between paintings and other forms is that there is no prescribed time over which a painting is viewed.” A “picture has no clear place at which to start viewing, or at which to finish”. This means that a painting does not have a specific beginning or end.
– unlike=a fundamental difference
36. NOT GIVEN
Question: Art history should focus on discovering the meaning of art using a range of media.
Keywords: art history, meaning of art, media.
Art history is mentioned in paragraph 10 where the writer argues that “Consequently, the dominant critical approach becomes that of the art historian, a specialised academic approach devoted to ‘discovering the meaning’ of art within the cultural context of its time”. So, whether art history should focus on discovering the meaning of art using a range of media is not mentioned. The statement is NOT GIVEN.
Question: The approach of art historians conflicts with that of art museums.
Keywords: art historians, conflicts, art museums.
In paragraph 10, “This (the approach of art historians) is in perfect harmony with the museum’s function” This means that there are absolutely no conflicts between the approach of art historians and that of art museums.
Question: People should be encouraged to give their opinions openly on works of art
Keywords: give opinions openly
In the last paragraph, the author indicates that “The museum public, like any other audience, experience art more rewardingly when given the confidence to express their views.
– give their opinions=express their views
39. NOT GIVEN
Question: Reproductions of fine art should only be sold to the public if they are of high quality.
Keywords: reproductions, sold, high quality.
In the last paragraph, the writer mentions high-quality reproductions of fine art and states that the public should have access to them, but no reference is made to the sale of such reproductions. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.
Question: In the future, those with power are likely to encourage more people to enjoy art.
Keywords: those with power, encourage, enjoy art.
In the last paragraph, “Unfortunately, that may be too much to ask from those who seek to maintain and control the art establishment.”
– those with power=those who seek to maintain and control