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1. ii

Paragraph B

In this paragraph, the history of the development of the industry began during the industrial revolution with “the advent of mass tourism… in England”. The author then indicates that the creation of the commercial airline industry and the development of the jet aircraft signalled the rapid growth of international travel, which led to “the development of a major new industry: tourism”. So, the main idea of paragraph B is how mass tourism developed.

=>ANSWER: ii (The development of mass tourism)

2. i

Paragraph C

The first sentence of paragraph C is also the main idea of this paragraph: “Tourism today has grown significantly in both economic and social importance”. The writer provides many examples and facts to demonstrate that tourism is the world’s leading industrial contributor, followed by a conclusion: “tourism has a profound impact both on the world economy and, because of the educative effect of travel and the effects on employment, on society itself.” So, this paragraph emphasizes the importance of tourism in terms of economy and society.

–  significance=importance

=>ANSWER: i (Economic and social significance of tourism)

3. v

Paragraph D

The first sentence of paragraph D is also its main idea. “The major problems of the travel and tourism industry that have hidden, or obscured, its economic impact are the diversity and fragmentation of the industry itself”. This means that there is a difficulty in recognising the effects of tourism on economy, because it is diverse and fragemented, unlike industrial factories for example.

–  difficulty in recognising=hidden or obscured

–  effect=impact

=>ANSWER: v: Difficulty in recognising the economic effects of tourism

4. vii

Paragraph E

In paragraph E, the author argues that “travel and tourism have become an institutionalised way of life for most of the population…Tourism has become the largest commodity in international trade for many nations…” This means that travel and tourism have a profound impact on many countries around the world.

–  world=international

=>ANSWER: vii: The world impact of tourism

5. TRUE

Question: The largest employment figures in the world are found in the travel and tourism industry.

Keywords: largest figures, employment, tourism.

In paragraph C, the author indicates that: “The travel and tourism industry is the world’s largest employer with almost 130 million jobs, or almost 7 per cent of all employees.” So, the statement is TRUE.

6. NOT GIVEN

Question: Tourism contributes over six per cent of the Australian gross national product.

Keywords: tourism, 6 per cent, Australian gross national product.

The information about Australian tourism or the Australian gross national productis NOT mentioned in the passage. Even the word ‘Australia’ does not appear in the passage. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

7. NOT GIVEN

Question: Tourism has a social impact because it promotes recreation.

Keywords: social impact, recreation

The social impact of tourism is mentioned in paragraph C. However, in this paragraph, whether tourism has a social impact because it promotes recreation or not is not specified. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

8. TRUE

Question: Two main features of the travel and tourism industry make its economic significance difficult to ascertain.

Keywords: two features, economic significance, difficult.

At the beginning of paragraph D, the author argues that “The major problems of the travel and tourism industry that have hidden, or obscured, its economic impact are the diversity and fragmentation of the industry itself”. So, two features of the travel and tourism industry which are the diversity and fragmentation have hidden its economic impact. The statement is TRUE.

–  economic significance=economic impact

–  hide/obscure=make…difficult to ascertain

9. NOT GIVEN

Question: Visitor spending is always greater than the spending of residents in tourist areas.

Keywords: visitor spending, greater, resident spending.

There is no specific information about either visitor spending or resident spending in the text. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

10. FALSE

Question: It is easy to show statistically how tourism affects individual economies.

Keywords: easy, statistically, affect economies.

At the end of paragraph E, “However, because of problems of definition, which directly affect statistical measurement, it is not possible with any degree of certainty to provide precise, valid or reliable data about the extent of world-wide tourism participation or its economic impact.” This means that it is not easy to show statistically how tourism affects individual economies because of problems of definition. So, the statement is FALSE.

–  show statistically=provide precise, valid or reliable data

11. source of income

Question: In Greece, tourism is the most important……………

Keywords: Greece, most important

Greece is mentioned in the last paragraph: “For example, tourism is the major source of income in Bermuda, Greece…”

–  the most important=major

12. employer

Question: The travel and tourism industry in Jamaica is the major……………

Keywords: Jamaica, the major

In the last paragraph, “the travel and tourism industry is the number one ranked employer in the Bahamas, Brazil…Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Singapore…”

–  major=number one ranked

13. domestic tourism

Question: The problems associated with measuring international tourism are often reflected in the measurement of…………….

Keywords: problems, measurement of

In the last paragraph, “However, because of problems of definition, which directly affect statistical measurement, it is not possible with any degree of certainty to provide precise, valid or reliable data about the extent of world-wide tourism participation or its economic impact. In many cases, similar difficulties arise when attempts are made to measure domestic tourism.”

–  problem=difficulty

14. C

Question: a description of the substance responsible for the red colouration of leaves.

Keywords: substance, red colouration, leaves

We need find the paragraph which features a substance making leaves red. In paragraph C, the author argues that “The source of the red is widely known: it is created by anthocyanins, water soluble plant pigments reflecting the red to blue range of the visible spectrum”. Then, he described how this substance is created: “anthocyanins are actually newly minted, made in the leaves at the same time as the tree is preparing to drop them.”

15. B

Question: the reason why trees drop their leaves in the autumn.

Keywords: trees drop leaves, autumn

In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “As fall approaches in the northern hemisphere, the amount of solar energy available declines considerably. For many trees-evergreen conifers being an exception-the best strategy is to abandon photosynthesis until the spring. So rather than maintaining the now redundant leaves throughout the winter, the tree saves its precious resources and discards them.”

–  autumn (British English) = fall (American English)

–  drop=discard

16. H

Question: some evidence to confirm a theory about the purpose of the red leaves.

Keywords: a theory, purpose, red leaves.

In paragraph H: “Even if you had never suspected that this is what was going on when leaves turn red, there are clues out there.” Then, the writer provides 3 different clues explaining why leaves turn red.

–  evidence=clue

17. B

Question: an explanation of the function of chlorophyll.

Keywords: function, chlorophyll.

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “summer leaves are green because they are full of chlorophyll, the molecule that captures sunlight and converts that energy into new building materials for the tree.”

18. E

Question: a suggestion that the red colouration in leaves could serve as a warning signal.

Keywords: red colouration, warning signal.

In paragraph E, “It has also been proposed that trees may produce vivid red colours to convince herbivorous insects that they are healthy and robust and would be easily able to mount chemical defences against infestation.”

19. sun(light)

Question: The most vividly coloured red leaves are found on the side of the tree facing the…

Keywords: most vividly coloured red, side, facing

In paragraph H, the writer says that “On many trees, the leaves that are the reddest are those on the side of the tree which gets most sun.”

–  the most vividly coloured red=the reddest

20. upper

Question: The …………. surfaces of leaves contain the most red pigment.

Keywords: surfaces, most red pigment.

In paragraph H, the writer indicates that “Not only that, but the red is brighter on the upper side of the leaf”.

–  surface=side

21. dry

Question: Red leaves are most abundant when daytime weather conditions are………….. and sunny.

Keywords: abundant, daytime weather, sunny.

Also, in paragraph H, the writer argues that “It has been recognised for decades that the best conditions for intense red colours are dry, sunny days and cool nights…”

–  most abundant=the best conditions for intense red colours

22. north

Question: The intensity of the red colour of leaves increases as you go further…..

Keywords: red colour, increases, go further

In paragraph H, the writer says that “And finally, trees such as maples usually get much redder the more north you travel in the northern hemisphere.”

–  go further=the more (north) you travel

23. FALSE

Question: It is likely that the red pigments help to protect the leaf from freezing temperatures.

Keywords: red pigments, protect, freezing temperatures.

In paragraph F, the writer indicates that “It sounds paradoxical; because the idea behind this hypothesis is that the red pigment is made in autumn leaves to protect chlorophyll, the light-absorbing chemical, from too much light.” So, the statement is FALSE.

24. TRUE

Question: The ‘light screen’ hypothesis would initially seem to contradict what is known about chlorophyll.

 Keywords: the light screen hypothesis, contradict, chlorophyll.

The ‘light screen’ hypothesis is mentioned in paragraph F. “It (The hypothesis) sounds paradoxical, because the idea behind this hypothesis is that the red pigment is made in autumn leaves to protect chlorophyll, the light-absorbing chemical, from too much light.” Then, the writer raises a question: “Why does chlorophyll need protection when it is the natural world’s supreme light absorber?” So, this is a contradiction between the ‘light screen’ hypothesis which supposes that chlorophyll is protected from too much light by the red pigment and what is known about chlorophyll (the natural world’s supreme light absorber). The statement is TRUE.

–  seem to contradict=sound paradoxical

25. NOT GIVEN

Question: Leaves which turn colours other than red are more likely to be damaged by sunlight.

Keywords: other than red, more likely, damaged by sunlight.

In this passage, the author does not mention whether leaves which turn colours other than red are more likely to be damaged by sunlight. In paragraph I, we read that some trees do not waste energy to produce red leaves, they simply show their natural orange or yellow colours, but no more information is given. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

–  colours=hues

26. B

Question: For which of the following question does the writer offer an explanation?

A. In paragraph B, the writer indicates that “For many trees-evergreen conifers being an exceptionthe best strategy is to abandon photosynthesis until the spring”. However, he does not explain why conifers remain green throughout the winter

B. In paragraph C, the writer argues that “As chlorophyll is depleted, other colours that have been dominated by it throughout the summer begin to be revealed. This unmasking explains the autumn colours of yellow and orange…

C. At the end of paragraph E “No one has as yet ascertained whether more robust trees sport the brightest leaves, or whether insects make choices according to colour intensity.

D. There are some theories about anthocyanins but they do not explain why anthocyanins are restricted to certain trees

27. B (plantation)

Question: A 3,000-year-old burial ground of a seafaring people called the Lapita has been found on an abandoned…………… on the Pacific island of Éfaté

Keywords: 3,000-year-old burial ground, found on an abandoned, Efate

In the first paragraph, the writer says that “An agricultural worker, digging in the grounds of a derelict plantation, scraped open a grave – the first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old.”

–  abandoned=derelict

28. F (archaeological discovery)

Question: The cemetery, which is a significant………….. was uncovered accidentally by an agricultural worker.

Keywords: cemetery, significant, agricultural worker

In the first paragraph, “The site came to light only by chance. An important archaeological discovery on the island of Éfaté in the Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu has revealed traces of an ancient seafaring people, the distant ancestors of today’s Polynesians…An agricultural worker, digging in the grounds of a derelict plantation, scraped open a grave – the first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old. It is the oldest cemetery ever found in the Pacific islands…”

–  cemetery=burial ground

–  significant=important

–  accidentally=only by chance

29. I (animals)

Question: The Lapita explored and colonised many Pacific islands over several centuries. They took many things with them on their voyages including…………… and tools.

Keywords: The Lapita, took, voyages, including

In paragraph 2, “They were also pioneers who carried with them everything they would need to build new lives – their livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools.”

–  took=carried

–  animals=livestock

30. G (burial urn)

Question: The burial ground increases the amount of information about the Lapita available to scientists. A team of researchers, led by Matthew Spriggs from the Australian National University, are helping with the excavation of the site. Spriggs believes the 30………….. which was found at the site is very important since it confirms that the 31…………… found inside are Lapita.

Keywords: Matthew Spriggs, important, inside

In paragraph 3, the writer says that “Other items included a Lapita burial urn with modeled birds arranged on the rim as though peering down at the human remains sealed inside. ‘It’s an important discovery, says Matthew Spriggs, ….’ for it conclusively identifies the remains as Lapita.

–  bones=remains

31. D (bones)

Question: The burial ground increases the amount of information about the Lapita available to scientists. A team of researchers, led by Matthew Spriggs from the Australian National University, are helping with the excavation of the site. Spriggs believes the 30………….. which was found at the site is very important since it confirms that the 31…………… found inside are Lapita.

Keywords: Matthew Spriggs, important, inside

In paragraph 3, the writer says that “Other items included a Lapita burial urn with modeled birds arranged on the rim as though peering down at the human remains sealed inside. ‘It’s an important discovery, says Matthew Spriggs, ….’ for it conclusively identifies the remains as Lapita.

–  bones=remains

32. C

Question: According to the writer, there are difficulties explaining how the Lapita accomplished their journeys because

Keywords: difficulties, the Lapita, journeys, because

In paragraph 5, the writer indicates that “There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide any answers: how did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, many times over? No-one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, which could reveal how the canoes were sailed. Nor do the oral histories and traditions of later Polynesians offer any insights, for they turn into myths long before they reach as far back in time as the Lapita.” This means that in this period, all the information relating to their accomplishments could not be verified.

=> ANSWER: C (Little information relating to this period can be relied upon for accuracy)

33. A

Question: According to the sixth paragraph, what was extraordinary about the Lapita?

Keywords: extraordinary, the Lapita

In paragraph 6, the writer says that “The real adventure didn’t begin, however, until their Lapita descendants sailed out of sight of land, with empty horizons on every side. This must have been as difficult for them as landing on the moon for us today.” This means that sailing out of sight of land is extraordinary for the Lapita.

–  Beyond the point where land is visible=out of sight of land.

=>ANSWER: A (They sailed beyond the point where land is visible)

34. D

Question: What does ‘this’ refer to in the seventh paragraph?

In paragraph 7, “They could sail out for days into the unknown and assess the area, secure in the knowledge that if they didn’t find anything, they could turn about and catch a swift ride back on the trade winds. This is what would have made the whole thing work.” So, ‘this’ means the Lapita believed that if they turned back, the winds would then be behind them and carry them home quickly.

=>ANSWER: D (the Lapita’s belief they would return home)

35. C

Question: According to the eighth paragraph how was the geography of the region significant?

At the beginning of paragraph 8, the author indicates that “For returning explorers, successful or not, the geography of their own archipelagoes would have provided a safety net. Without this to go by, overshooting their home ports, getting lost and sailing off into eternity would have been all too easy” So, this means that the geography of the region provided a navigational aid for the Lapita.

=>ANSWER: C (It provided a navigational aid for the Lapita)

36. NO

Question: It is now clear that the Lapita could sail into a prevailing wind.

Keywords: clear, sail into a prevailing wind

In paragraph 9, Professor Atholl Anderson says that “All this presupposes …the Lapita had mastered the advanced art of sailing against the wind. And there’s no proof they could do such thing”. This means that whether the Lapita could sail into a prevailing wind has not been verified yet. So, the statement is false.

–  a prevailing wind=against the wind

37. YES

Question: Extreme climate conditions may have played a role in Lapita migration.

Keywords: extreme climate conditions, Lapita migration.

In paragraph 10, the writer indicates that “El Nino, the same climate disruption that affects the Pacific today, may have helped scatter the Lapita…climate data obtained from slow-growing corals around the Pacific indicate a series of unusually frequent El Nino around the time of the Lapita.” This means that during the time of the Lapita, a series of El Nino may have helped scatter the Lapita. So, the statement is true.

38. NOT GIVEN

Question: The Lapita learnt to predict the duration of El Nino

Keywords: predict, duration, El Nino

El Nino is only mentioned in paragraph 10; however, in this paragraph, the writer does not say anything about the Lapita learning to predict the duration of El Nino. So, the statement is NOT
GIVEN.

39. YES

Question: It remains unclear why the Lapita halted their expansion across the Pacific.

Keywords: unclear, halted expansion, the Pacific.

In paragraph 11, the writer indicates that “the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them.” This means that it remains unclear why they halted their expansion across the Pacific. So, the statement is true.

–  halt = call it quits

40. NOT GIVEN

Question: It is likely that the majority of Lapita settled on Fiji.

Keywords: the majority, Fiji.

Fiji is only mentioned in paragraph 11. At the end of paragraph 11, the writer argues that “They probably never numbered more than a few thousand in total, and in their rapid migration eastward they encountered hundreds of islands – more than 300 in Fiji alone.” The writer does not mention whether the majority of Lapita settled on Fiji. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

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