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1. spread

At the end of paragraph 1, the writer indicates that “The wildfires themselves, experts say, are generally hotter, faster, and spread more erratically than in the past.”

–  unpredictably=erratically

2. 10 times

At the beginning of paragraph 2, the writer says that “Megafires, also called “siege fires” are the increasingly frequent blazes that burn 50,000 acres or more – 10 times the size of the average forest fire of 20 years ago.

–  20 years = 2 decades

3. below

In paragraph 3, the writer says that “One explanation for the trend to more superhot fires is that the region, which usually has dry summers, has had significantly below normal precipitation in many recent years.”

–  rainfall=precipitation

–  average=normal

4. fuel

In paragraph 3, “The unintentional consequence has been to halt the natural eradication of underbrush, now the primary fuel for megafires.” In the past, the US Forest Service had a policy of cutting this ‘brush’ – the plants that grow beneath the trees. However, the Service did not realise then that if this brush was eradicated naturally by fires, then this natural process would be more effective. Without realising this, as a result of their policy, the brush grew more quickly and strongly, providing more fuel to start fires.

5. seasons

In paragraph 4, the writer indicates that “Three other factors contribute to the trend, they add…Second is fire seasons that on average are 78 days longer than they were 20 years ago.” This means that fire seasons are extended.

–  extended=longer

6. homes

At the end of paragraph 4, the writer says that “Third is increased construction of homes in wooded areas.”

–  more=increased

–  building=construction

7. TRUE

Question: The amount of open space in California has diminished over the last ten years.

Keywords: space, California, diminished, 10 years.

In paragraph 6, “In California, where population growth has averaged more than 600,000 a year for at least a decade, more residential housing is being built. What once was open space is now residential homes…” This means that the open space in California has diminished over the last ten years because there have been more residential homes. So, the statement is TRUE.

8. FALSE

Question: Many experts believe California has made little progress in readying itself to fight fires.

Keywords: experts, California, little progress, fight fires.

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “That said, many experts give California high marks for making progress on preparedness in recent years, after some of the largest fires in state history scorched thousands of acres, burned thousands of homes, and killed numerous people.” This means that many experts appreciate California’s making progress on preparedness in recent years. The people involved are now fighting fires “better than previously”. So, the statement is FALSE.

–  readying itself=preparedness

9. TRUE

Question: Personnel in the past have been criticised for mishandling fire containment.

Keywords: personnel, criticised, mishandling, containment

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “Stung in the past by criticism of bungling that allowed fires to spread when they might have been contained, personnel are meeting the peculiar challenges of neighborhood – and canyon – hoping fires better than previously, observers say.” So, it is true that personnel in the past have been criticised for mishandling fire containment.

–  mishandling=bungling

10. TRUE

Question: California has replaced a range of firefighting tools.

Keywords: replace, firefighting tools, California

In paragraph 9, “Besides providing money to upgrade the fire engines that must traverse the mammoth state and wind along serpentine canyon roads, the state has invested in better commandand-control facilities as well as in the strategies to run them.” This means that California has replaced a range of firefighting tools. So, the statement is TRUE.

–  replaced=upgrade

–  tools=facilities

11. NOT GIVEN

Question: More firefighters have been hired to improve fire-fighting capacity.

Keywords: more firefighters, hired, improve

In this passage, the writer mentions the improvement in firefighting tools, but does not mention whether more firefighters have been hired to improve fire-fighting capacity. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

12. FALSE

Question: Citizens and government groups disapprove of the efforts of different states and agencies working together.

Keywords: government, disapprove, working together.

At the end of paragraph 9, the writer argues that “There is a sense among both government and residents that the speed, dedication, and coordination of firefighters from several states and jurisdictions are resulting in greater efficiency than in past ‘siege fire’ situations.” So, this means that both citizens and government groups appreciate the efforts of different states and agencies working together. The statement is FALSE.

–  agencies=jurisdictions

–  citizens=residents

–  working together=coordination

13. FALSE

Question: Randy Jacobs believes that loss of life from fires will continue at the same levels, despite changes made.

Keywords: Randy Jacobs, loss of life, same levels

At the end of the passage, Randy Jacobs says that “Notwithstanding all the damage that will continue to be caused by wildfires, we will no longer suffer the loss of life endured in the past because of the fire prevention and firefighting measures that have been put in place”. This means that, thanks to the fire prevention and firefighting measures, we will no longer suffer the loss of life from fires like we did in the past. So, the statement is FALSE.

14. transformation

Question: Psychologists have traditionally believed that a personality 14…………….. was impossible and that by a 15……………., a person’s character tends to be fixed.

Keywords: personality, impossible, character, fixed

In the first paragraph, the author says that “Psychologists have long held that a person’s character cannot undergo a transformation in any meaningful way and that the key traits of personality are determined at a very young age.”

–  personality=character

–  be impossible=cannot

–  fixed=determined

15. young age

Question: Psychologists have traditionally believed that a personality 14…………….. was impossible and that by a 15……………., a person’s character tends to be fixed.

Keywords: personality, impossible, character, fixed

In the first paragraph, the author says that “Psychologists have long held that a person’s character cannot undergo a transformation in any meaningful way and that the key traits of personality are determined at a very young age.”

–  personality=character

–  be impossible=cannot

–  fixed=determined

16. optimism

Question: One of the easiest qualities to acquire is………….

Keywords: easiest quality, acquire

In paragraph A, “Some qualities are less challenging to develop than others, optimism being one of them.”

–  less challenging to develop=easiest to acquire

17. skills

Question: However, regardless of the quality, it is necessary to learn a wide variety of different 17……………. in order for a new quality to develop; for example, a person must understand and feel some 18……………. in order to increase their happiness.

Keywords: learn different, new quality, understand and feel.

At the end of paragraph A, “However, developing qualities requires mastering a range of skills which are diverse and sometimes surprising. For example, to bring more joy and passion into your life, you must be open to experiencing negative emotions.”

–  a (wide) variety of=a range of

–  feel=experience

–  happiness=joy

18. negative emotions

Question: However, regardless of the quality, it is necessary to learn a wide variety of different 17……………. in order for a new quality to develop; for example, a person must understand and feel some 18……………. in order to increase their happiness.

Keywords: learn different, new quality, understand and feel.

At the end of paragraph A, “However, developing qualities requires mastering a range of skills which are diverse and sometimes surprising. For example, to bring more joy and passion into your life, you must be open to experiencing negative emotions.”

–  a (wide) variety of=a range of

–  feel=experience

–  happiness=joy

19. E

Question: People must accept that they do not know much when first trying something new.

Keywords: not know much, new

At the end of paragraph F, Todd Kashdan says “As a newcomer, you also have to tolerate and laugh at your own ignorance. You must be willing to accept the negative feelings that come your way.”

–  When first trying something new ~ As a newcomer

–  accept=tolerate

–  accept that they do not know much ~ tolerate your own ignorance

20. C

Question: It is important for people to actively notice when good things happen.

Keywords: important, notice, good things.

In paragraph D, “She (Suzanne Segerstrom) recommends you train yourself to pay attention to good fortune by writing down three positive things that come about each day.”

–  actively notice=pay attention to

–  good things=positive things

–  happen=come about

21. G

Question: Courage can be learned once its origins in a sense of responsibility are understood.

Keywords: courage, be learned, origins, understood

In paragraph H, “According to Cynthia Pury, a psychologist at Clemson University, Pedeleose’s story proves the point that courage is not motivated by fearlessness, but by moral obligation. Pury also believes that people can acquire courage.”

–  learn=acquire

–  responsibility=moral obligation

22. A

Question: It is possible to overcome shyness when faced with the need to speak in public.

Keywords: overcome shyness, speak in public.

In paragraph B, “Inherently introverted, he (Christopher Peterson) realised early on that as an academic, his reticence would prove disastrous in the lecture hall. So he learned to be more outgoing and entertain his classes. ‘Now my extroverted behaviour is spontaneous,’ he says”

–  reticence=shyness

–  overcome shyness ~ learn to be more outgoing

–  faced with the need to speak in public ~ as an academic (he had to speak in lecture halls and
classes)

23. E

Question: a mention of how rational thinking enabled someone to achieve physical goals.

Keywords: rational thinking, achieve goals

In paragraph E, “The physical stamina required for this sport is intense but the psychological demands are even more overwhelming. Streeter learned to untangle her fears from her judgment of what her body and mind could do.” By judging what her body and mind could do, Streeter could achieve goals about freediving.

–  rational thinking=judgment

24. C

Question: an account of how someone overcame a sad experience.

Keyword: overcame, sad.

In paragraph C, “He (David Fajgenbaum) was preparing for university, when he had an accident that put an end to his sports career…He launched a support group to help others in similar situations. He took action despite his own pain – a typical response of an optimist.”

25. G

Question: a description of how someone decided to rethink their academic career path.

Keywords: rethink, academic career path

In paragraph G, “He (Mauro Zappaterra) was miserable as his research wasn’t compatible with his curiosity about healing. He finally took a break and during eight months in Santa Fe, Zappaterra learned about alternative healing techniques not taught at Harvard. When he got back, he switched labs to study how cerebrospinal fluid nourishes the developing nervous system.”

26. H

Question: an example of how someone risked his career out of a sense of duty.

Keywords: risked his career, duty.

In paragraph H, “The new manager was intimidating staff so Pedeleose carefully recorded each instance of bullying and eventually took the evidence to a senior director, knowing his own job security would be threatened….Pedeleose’s story proves the point that courage is not motivated by fearlessness, but by moral obligation.”

–  a sense of duty=moral obligation

27. C

Question: When discussing the theory developed by Louis Dollo, the writer says that

Keywords: theory; Louis Dollo

In paragraph 3, the writer says that “a Belgian palaeontologist called Louis Dollo was studying fossil records and coming to the opposite conclusion. In 1890, he proposed that evolution was irreversible: that ‘an organism is unable to return, even partially, to a previous stage already realised in the ranks of its ancestors.’ Early 20th-century biologists came to a similar conclusion, though they qualified it in terms of probability, stating that there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards – it is just very unlikely. And so the idea of irreversibility in evolution stuck and came to be known as Dollo’s law.”

– modified=qualified

28. D

Question: The humpback whale caught off Vancouver Island is mentioned because of

Keywords: humpback whale; Vancouver Island

In paragraph 4, “If Dollo’s law is right, atavisms should occur only very rarely, if at all. Yet almost since the idea took root, exceptions have been cropping up. In 1919, for example, a humpback whale with a pair of leg-like appendages over a metre long, complete with a set of limb bones, was caught off Vancouver Island in Canada.” Its strange features made Roy Chapman Andrew argue that it “must be a throwback to a land-living ancestor”, which is opposite to Dollo’s law. So, the humpback whale is mentioned because of the reason given for its unusual features.

29. C

Question: What is said about ‘silent genes’?

Keywords: silent genes

In paragraph 5, “while some evolutionary changes involve the loss of genes and are therefore irreversible, others may be the result of genes being switched off. If these silent genes are somehow switched back on, they argued, long-lost traits could reappear.” So, this means that ‘silent genes’ could lead to the re-emergence of certain characteristics.

–  characteristics= traits

–  re-emerge=reappear

30. B

Question: The writer mentions the mole salamander because

Keywords: mole salamander

In paragraph 6, Raff’s team went on to calculate the likelihood of silent genes happening. The team calculated that there is a good chance of silent genes surviving up to 6 million years, and that some might survive as long as 10 million years.

Then, in paragraph 7, the mole salamander is mentioned. At the end of this paragraph, the writer concludes that “The salamander example fits with Raff’s 10-million-year time frame.”

So, this means that the mole salamander is mentioned to suggest that Raff’s theory is correct.

–  suggests that … correct=fits with

31. A

Question: Which of the following does Wagner claim?

Keywords: Wagner, claim

In paragraph 8, “According to his (Wagner’s) analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed species re-evolved toes from toeless ancestors and, what is more, digit loss and gain has occurred on more than one occasion over tens of millions of years” So, this means Wagner claims that members of the Bachia lizard family have lost and regained certain features several times.

–  several times=on more than one occasion

32. F

Question: For a long time biologists rejected

Keywords: long time; biologists, rejected

In the first paragraph, “For the better part of a century, most biologists have been reluctant to use those words (evolutionary throwback), mindful of a principle of evolution that says ‘evolution cannot run backwards”. In other words, for a long time, most biologists rejected the possibility of evolution being reversible.

–  reversible=run backwards

33. G

Question: Opposing views on evolutionary throwbacks are represented by

Keywords: opposing; evolutionary throwbacks

In paragraph 3, the writer argues that “while Lombroso was measuring criminals, a Belgian palaeontologist called Louis Dollo was studying fossil records and coming to the opposite conclusion.” This conclusion was that: “there is no reason why evolution cannot run backwards”. This means that opposing views on evolutionary throwbacks are represented by Dollo’s findings and the convictions held by Lombroso.

–  views=convictions

34. A

Question: Examples of evolutionary throwbacks have led to

Keywords: examples, evolutionary

In paragraph 5, “Since then, so many other examples have been discovered that it no longer makes sense to say that evolution is as good as irreversible. And this poses a puzzle: how can characteristics that disappeared millions of years ago suddenly reappear?” This means that examples of evolutionary throwbacks have led to the question of how certain long-lost traits could reappear.

–  the question=the puzzle

35. B

Question: The shark and killer whale are mentioned to exemplify

Keywords: shark, killer whale

In paragraph 9, “One possibility is that these traits are lost and then simply reappear, in much the same way that similar structures can independently arise in unrelated species, such as the dorsal fins of sharks and killer whales.” This means that the shark and killer whale are mentioned to exemplify the occurrence of a particular feature in different species.

–  different=unrelated

36. D

Question: One explanation for the findings of Wagner’s research is

Keywords: Wagner, research

In paragraph 9, the writer argues that “Another more intriguing possibility is that the genetic information needed to make toes somehow survived for tens or perhaps hundreds of millions of years in the lizards and was reactivated.” This means that one explanation for the findings of Wagner’s research is the continued existence of certain genetic information.

–  one explanation=another possibility

37. NOT GIVEN

Question: Wagner was the first person to do research on South American lizards.

Keywords: Wagner, first, South American lizards

In this passage, the writer just specifies Wagner’s research on the evolutionary history of a group of South American lizards, but does not mention whether he was the first person to do research on South American lizards or not. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

38. YES

Question: Wagner believes that Bachia lizards with toes had toeless ancestors.

Keywords: Bachia lizards, toeless ancestors.

In paragraph 8, “According to his analysis of the Bachia family tree, the toed speciesre-evolved toes from toeless ancestors…” So, the statement is true.

39. NO

Question: The temporary occurrence of long-lost traits in embryos is rare.

Keywords: long-lost traits, embryos, rare

In the last paragraph, the writer argues that “Early embryos of many species develop ancestral features.” This means that the temporary occurrence of long-lost traits in embryos is NOT rare. So, the statement is false.

–  long-lost traits=ancestral features

40. YES

Question: Evolutionary throwbacks might be caused by developmental problems in the womb.

Keywords: evolutionary throwbacks, developmental problems, womb

In the last paragraph, the writer indicates that “But if silent genes degrade within 6 to 10 million years, how can long-lost traits be reactivated over longer time scales? The answer may lie in the womb.” So, the statement is true.

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