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1. TRUE

Question: There is some doubt about what caused the Mary Rose to sink

Keywords: doubt, sink

In the first paragraph, the writer says that “Accounts of what happened to the ship vary: while witnesses agree that she was not hit by the French, some maintain that she was outdated, overladen and sailing too low in the water, others that she was by undisciplined crew.”

–  what caused the Mary Rose to sink=accounts of what happened to the ship

2. NOT GIVEN

Question: The Mary Rose was the only ship to sink in the battle of 19 July 1545

Keywords: the only ship, sink, 19 July 1545

In the first paragraph, the writer states that “Among the English vessels was a warship by the name of Mary Rose” but he does not mention whether the Mary Rose was the only ship to sink in the battle. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

3. TRUE

Question: Most of one side of the Mary Rose lay undamaged under the sea.

Keywords: one side, undamaged, under the sea

In the second paragraph, the writer indicates that “Because of the way the ship sank, nearly all of the starboard half survived intact.”

–  most of=nearly all of

–  one side of the Mary Rose=the starboard half

–  undamaged=intact

4. FALSE

Question: Alexander McKee knew that the wreck would contain many valuable historical objects.

Keywords: valuable historical objects, Alexander McKee

In paragraph 5, the writer argues that “McKee and his team now knew for certain that they had found the wreck, but were as yet unaware that it also housed a treasure trove of beautifully preserved artefacts.” This means that Alexander McKee did not know that the wreck would contain many valuable historical objects.

–  contain=house

–  many valuable historical objects ~ a treasure trove of beautifully preseved artefacts

5. C

Question: A search for the Mary Rose was launched

In paragraph 4, the writer says that “But in 1965, military historian and amateur diver Alexander McKee, in conjunction with the British Sub-Aqua Club, initiated a project called ‘Solent Ships’. While on paper this was a plan to examine a number of known wrecks in the Solent, what McKee really hoped for was to find the Mary Rose.”

–  launched=initiated

6. B

Question: One person’s exploration of the Mary Rose site stopped.

In paragraph 3 and 4, the writer argues that “Exploring further, he uncovered several other timbers and a bronze gun. Deane continued diving on the site intermittently until 1840, recovering several more guns, two bows, various timbers, part of a pump and various other small finds. The Mary Rose then faded into obscurity for another hundred years.” This means that in 1840, Deane’s exploration of the Mary Rose site stopped.

7. G

Question: It was agreed that the hull of the Mary Rose should be raised.

In paragraph 5, the writer indicates that “While the original aim was to raise the hull if at all feasible, the operation was not given the go-ahead until January 1982, when all the necessary information was available.”

–  agreed=given the go-ahead

8. A

Question: The site of the Mary Rose was found by chance

In paragraph 3, “Then, on 16 June 1836, some fishermen in the Solent found that their equipment was caught on an underwater obstruction, which turned out to be the Mary Rose.”

9. lifting frame

Question: ……………. attached to hull by wires

In the last paragraph, the writer says that “The hull was attached to a lifting frame via a network of bolts and lifting wires.”

–  by=via

10. hydraulic jacks

Question: ………… to prevent hull being sucked into mud

In the last paragraph, the writer says that “The problem of the hull being sucked back downwards into the mud was overcome by using 12 hydraulic jacks.”

11. stabbing guides

Question: legs are placed into………….

In the last paragraph, the writer says that “This required precise positioning to locate the legs into the ‘stabbing guides’ of the lifting cradle.”

–  place=locate

12. lifting cradle

Question: hull is lowered into………….

 Also, in the last paragraph, the writer says that “In this stage, the lifting frame was fixed to a hook attached to a crane, and the hull was lifted completely clear of the seabed and transferred underwater into the lifting cradle.”

–  lowered into ~ transferred underwater into

13. air bags

Question: …………….. used as extra protection for the hull.

Also, in the last paragraph, the writer says that “The lifting cradle was designed to fit the hull using archaeological survey drawings, and was fitted with airbags to provide additional cushioning for the hull’s delicate timber framework.”

–  extra protection=additional cushioning

14. ii

Paragraph A

In this paragraph, the author writes about Easter Island and the moai. He says that “The identity of the moai builders was in doubt until well into the twentieth century.” Then, he explains some people’s assumptions of how the Moai were built. The paragraph ends by noting that modern science has definitively proved the moai builders were Polynesians”. So, the correct heading for this paragraph is an undisputed answer to a question about the moai.

–  an undisputed answer to a question=definitively proved

15. ix

Paragraph B

In this paragraph, the writer indicates that “When the islanders (the Rapanui people) cleared the forests for firewood and farming, the forests didn’t grow back. As trees became scarce and they could no longer construct wooden canoes for fishing, they ate birds. Soil erosion decreased their crop yields.” This led to the collapse of their isolated civilisation. So, the correct heading of this paragraph is diminishing food resources.

16. viii

Paragraph C.

In this paragraph, the writer emphasizes that “The moai accelerated the self-destruction.” To support this idea, the writer lists what the moai did, such as competing by building ever bigger figures, laying the moai on wooden sledges, hauling over log rails, clearing land. So, the correct idea of this paragraph is how the statues made a situation worse

–  the statues=the moai

–  made a situation worse=accelerated the self-destruction

17. i

Paragraph D.

In this paragraph, “archaeological excavations indicate that the Rapanui went to heroic efforts to protect the resources of their wind-lashed, infertile fields. They built thousands of circular stone windbreaks and gardened inside them, and used broken volcanic rocks to keep the soil moist.” Then, the writer concludes that “In short, the prehistoric Rapanui were pioneers of sustainable farming.” So, The correct heading of this paragraph is evidence of innovation environment management practices.

18. iv

Paragraph E.

This paragraph is about some archaeological evidence of how the moai were moved, which “backs up Rapanui folklore”: “Recent experiments indicate that as few as 18 people could, with three strong ropes and a bit of practice, easily manoeuvre a 1,000 kg moai replica a few hundred metres.”So, the correct heading for this paragraph is a theory which supports the local belief.

–  support=back up

–  the folklore=the local belief

19. vii

Paragraph F.

In this paragraph, the writer mentions some damage to the island that was not caused by the Rapanui, such as the rats (the rats arrived along with the settlers, and in a few years, hunt and Lipo calculate, they would have overrun the island) and “the arrival of the Europeans who introduced deadly diseases to which islanders had no immunity”. Hunt and Lippo claim that the Rapanui “were not wholly responsible for the loss of the island’s trees”. So, the correct heading for this paragraph is destruction outside the inhabitants’ control.

20. vi

Paragraph G

In this paragraph, the writer mentions two points of view of the Rapanui. While Hunt and Lipo shared the vision that the moai builders were peaceful and ingenious, another assumption was that the Rapanui “were reckless destroyers ruining their own environment and society.” So, the correct heading for this paragraph is two opposing views about the Rapanui people.

21. farming

Question: Diamond believes that the Polynesian settlers on Rapa Nui destroyed its forests, cutting down its trees for fuel and clearing land for……………

Keywords: the Polynesian settlers, clearing land for, Jared Diamond

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “US scientist Jared Diamond believes that the Rapanui people – descendants of Polynesian settlers – wrecked their own environment. They had unfortunately settled on an extremely fragile island – dry, cool, and too remote to be properly fertilised by windblown volcanic ash. When islanders cleared the forests for firewood and farming, the forests didn’t grow back.”

In the next paragraph, he says “To feed the people, even more land had to be cleared.”

22. canoes

Question: When the islanders were no longer able to build the 22………….. they needed to go fishing, they began using the island’s 23……………

Keywords: no longer, build, fishing

In paragraph B, the writer says that “As trees became scarce and they could no longer construct wooden canoes for fishing, they ate birds.

–  build=construct

23. birds

Question: When the islanders were no longer able to build the 22………….. they needed to go fishing, they began using the island’s 23……………

Keywords: no longer, build, fishing

In paragraph B, the writer says that “As trees became scarce and they could no longer construct wooden canoes for fishing, they ate birds.

–  build=construct

24. wood

Question: Diamond also claims that the moai were built to show the power of the island’s chieftains, and that the methods of transporting the statues needed not only a great number of people, but also a great deal of……………..

Keywords: transporting the statues, a great deal of

In paragraph C, the writer indicates that “Diamond thinks they laid the moai on wooden sledges, hauled over log rails, but that required both a lot of wood and a lot of people.”

–  needed=required

–  a great deal of=a lot of

25, 26. B, C

Question: On what points do Hunt and Lipo disagree with Diamond?

Firstly, in paragraph C, Diamond assumes that “they (the Rapanui people) laid the moai on wooden sledges; hauled over log rails, but that required both a lot of wood and a lot of people.” But in paragraph E, Hunt and Lipo contend believe that “moving the moai required few people and no wood.” So, Hunt and Lipo disagree with Diamond about how the moai were transported.

Secondly, in paragraph C, Diamond thinks that the moai accelerated the destruction of the island. Meanwhile, in paragraph F, “Hunt and Lipo are convinced that the settlers were not wholly responsible for the loss of the island’s trees.” So, Hunt and Lipo disagree with Diamond about the impact of the moai on Rapanui society.

27. C

Question: In the second paragraph, the writer refers to a shape-matching test in order to illustrate

Keywords: shape-matching test, illustrate

In paragraph 2, the writer says that “We certainly do have an inclination to follow the crowd. When asked to make simple perceptual decisions such as matching a shape to its rotated image, for example, people often choose a definitively wrong answer if they see others doing the same.” This means that the writer refers to a shape-matching test in order to illustrate our tendency to be influenced by the opinions of others.

28. D

Question: Angelina Hawley-Dolan’s findings indicate that people

Keywords: Angelina Hawley-Dolan’s findings

In paragraph 3, Angelina Hawley-Dolan’s experiment shows that “volunteers generally preferred the work of renowned artists, even when they believed it was by an animal or a child. It seems that the viewers can sense the artists’ vision in paintings, even if they can’t explain why.” So, Angelina Hawley-Dolan’s findings indicate that people have the ability to perceive the intention behind works of art.

–  perceive the intention behind works of art=sense the artists’ vision in paintings

29. B

Question: Results of studies involving Robert Pepperell’s pieces suggest that people

Keywords: results of studies, Pepperell’s pieces

At the end of paragraph 4, the writer argues that “It would seem that the brain sees these images as puzzles, and the harder it is to decipher the meaning, the more rewarding is the moment of recognition.” This means that results of studies involving Robert Pepperell’s pieces suggest that people find it satisfying to work out what a painting represents.

–  satisfying=rewarding

–  work out=decipher

–  what a painting means=the meaning

30. A

Question: What do the experiments described in the fifth paragraph suggest about the paintings of Mondrian?

Keywords: experiments, suggest, paintings of Mondrian

In the fifth paragraph, the writer indicates that “eye-tracking studies confirm that they (Mondrian’s) works are meticulously composed, and that simply rotating a piece radically changes the way we view it.” This means that the paintings of Mondrian are more carefully put together than they appear.

–  experiments=studies

–  paintings=works

–  carefully=meticulously

–  be put together=be composed

31. C (emotions)

Question: The discipline of neuroaesthetics aims to bring scientific objectivity to the study of art. Neurological studies of the brain, for example, demonstrate the impact which Impressionist paintings have on our…………..

Keywords: the impact, Impressionist paintings have on our

In the first paragraph, the writer says that “The blurred imagery of Impressionist paintings seems to stimulate the brain’s amygdala, for instance. Since the amygdala plays a crucial role in our feelings, that finding might explain why many people find these pieces so moving.” This means that Impressionist paintings have impact on our feelings.

–  emotions=feelings

32. B (complexity)

Question: Alex Forsythe of the University of Liverpool believes many artists give their works the precise degree of………….. which most appeals to the viewer’s brain.

Keywords: precise degree, appeals to the viewer’s brain

In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “In another experiment, Alex Forsythe of the University of Liverpool analysed the visual intricacy of different pieces of art, and her results suggest that many artists use a key level of detail to please the brain. This means that Alex Forsythe believes many artists give their works the precise degree of visual intricacy which most appeals to the viewer’s brain.

33. H (images)

Question: She also observes that pleasing works of art often contain certain repeated……………..which occur frequently in the natural world.

Keywords: pleasing works of art, repeated

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “What’s more, appealing pieces both abstract and representational, show signs of ‘fractals’repeated motifs recurring in different scales. Fractals are common throughout nature, for example in the shapes of mountain peaks of branches of trees. It is possible that our visual system, which evolved in the great outdoors, finds it easier to process such patterns.” So, pleasing works of art often contain certain repeated motifs/ patterns which occur frequently in the natural world.

–  motifs=patterns=images

–  pleasing=appealing

–  works of art=pieces

–  occur frequently=are common

–  in the natural world=throughout nature

34. NOT GIVEN

Question: Forsythe’s findings contradicted previous beliefs on the function of ‘fractals’ in art

Keywords: contradicted, previous beliefs

In paragraph 7 which details Forsythe’s findings, the writer does not mentions whether her findings contradicted previous beliefs on the function of ‘fractals’ in art. Although fractals are mentioned, this is only to explain what they are. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

35. YES

Question: Certain ideas regarding the link between ‘mirror neurons’ and art appreciation require further verification.

Keywords: link, mirror neurons, art appreciation, further verification

In paragraph 8, the writer says that “It is also intriguing that the brain appears to process movement when we see a handwritten letter, as if we are replaying the writer’s moment of creation. This has led some to wonder whether Pollock’s works feel so dynamic because the brain reconstructs the energetic actions the artist used as he painted. This may be down to our brain’s ‘mirror neurons’, which are known to mimic others’ actions. The hypothesis will need to be thoroughly tested…”

–  require further verification= The hypothesis will need to be thoroughly tested

36. NO

Question: People’s taste in paintings depends entirely on the current artistic trends of the period.

Keywords: taste, current artistic trends

At the end of paragraph 8, the writer indicates that “While the fashion of the time might shape what is currently popular, works that are best adapted to our visual system may be the most likely to linger once the trends of previous generations have been forgotten.” So, it is not true that people’s taste in paintings depends entirely on the current artistic trends of the period.

–  trend of the period=fashion of the time

37. NO

Question: Scientists should seek to define the precise rules which govern people’s reactions to works of art.

Keywords: define precise rules, govern, reactions

In the last paragraph, the writer argues that “It would, however, be foolish to reduce art appreciation to set a set of scientific laws.” So, it is not true that scientists should seek to define the precise rules which govern people’s reactions to works of art.

–  rules=laws

–  people’s reactions to works of art ~ art appreciation

38. YES

Question: Moffat’s research may help explain people’s reactions to EMI

Key words: Moffat, explain, reactions, EMI

At the beginning of paragraph 6, the writer asks: “…why did so many people love the music, yet recoil when they discovered how it was composed? We then learn that Moffat’s study helps to provide an answer to this question: “A study by computer scientist David Moffat of Glasgow Caledonian University provides a clue”.

Thus, people’s reactions to music composed by a computer required some explanation. Their reaction was either to love the music or to recoil. The study provided a clue.

–  research = study

–  help explain = provide a clue.

The answer is YES.

39. NOT GIVEN

Question: The non-experts in Moffat’s study all responded in a predictable way

Key words: non-experts, Moffat, predictable

Moffat asked both experts and non-experts to take part in his study by listening to six pieces of music (paragraph 6). The writer tells us that: “People who thought the composer was a computer tended to dislike the piece more than those who believed it was human. This was true even among the experts, who might have been expected to be more objective in their analysis”.

We learn that everyone in the study (experts and non-experts) generally disliked a piece of music more when they thought the composer was a computer. The writer was surprised that even the music experts reacted in the same way as the non-experts.

Non-experts are not mentioned again, so we don’t know if they all responded in a predictable way.

The answer is NOT GIVEN.

40. A

Question: What would be the most appropriate subtitle for the article?

In this passage, the writer refers to some scientific experiments, theories and knowledge of the way the brain reacts to abstract art. Neuroaesthectics are mentioned in paragraph 1 in the study of past masterpieces and then, in paragraph 2, the writer asks: “Could the same approach also shed light on abstract twentieth-century pieces…? The rest of the article tries to answer this question. So, the most appropriate subtitle for this article is some scientific insights into how the brain responds to abstract art.

– insights=shed light on

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