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1. FALSE

Question: There may be genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks.

Keywords: genetic causes, differences, young skin, identical twins

In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “Any differences between them (identical twins) – one twin having younger looking skin, for example – must be due to environmental factors such as less time spent in the sun.” So, there are no genetic causes for the differences in how young the skin of identical twins looks, only environmental factors.

2. NOT GIVEN

Question: Twins are at greater risk of developing certain illnesses than non-twins.

Keywords: greater risk, illnesses

In terms of the risk of developing certain illnesses, the writer only compares identical twins with fraternal twins (at the end of paragraph 2), he does not make a comparison between twins and non-twins. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

–  illnesses=ailments

3. NOT GIVEN

Question: Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth.

Keywords: Bouchard, advertised, newspapers, separated

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether Bouchard advertised in newspapers for twins who had been separated at birth or not. In paragraph 4, we are only told that 137 sets of twins visited his laboratory. Therefore, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

4. TRUE

Question: Epigenetic processes are different from both genetic and environmental processes

Keywords: Epigenetic processes, genetic, environmental

In paragraph 6, the writer states that “… nature and nurture are not the only elemental forces at work. According to a recent field called epigenetics, there is a third factor also in play, one that in some cases serves as a bridge between the environment and our genes.

–  genetic and environmental processes ~ nature and nurture

5. A

Question: invented a term used to distinguish two factors affecting human characteristics.

Keywords: term, distinguish, characteristics

In paragraph 4, the writer explains that “The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase ‘nature and nurture’)”

–  invented=coined

6. C

Question: expressed the view that the study of epigenetics will increase our knowledge

Keywords: study of epigenetics, increase our knowledge

In paragraph 12, the geneticist “Reed adds, the latest work in epigenetics promises to take our understanding even further”.

–  study of epigenetics=work in epigenetics

–  increase our knowledge~take our understanding even further

7. B

Question: developed a mathematical method of measuring genetic influences.

Keywords: mathematical method, measuring

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Bouchard and his colleagues used this mountain of data to identify how far twins were affected by their genetic makeup. The key to their approach was a statistical concept called heritability. In broad terms, the heritability of a trait measures the extent to which differences among embers of a population can be explained by differences in their genetics”.

–  mathematical method=statistical concept

8. A

Question: pioneered research into genetics using twins

Keywords: pioneered, twins

In paragraph 4, the writer indicates that “The idea of using twins to measure the influence of heredity dates back to 1875, when the English scientist Francis Galton first suggested the approach (and coined the phrase ‘nature and nurture’).”

–  pioneered=first suggested

9. B

Question: carried out research into twins who had lived apart.

Keywords: research, lived apart

In paragraph 4, the writer says that “… twin studies took a surprising twist in the 1980s, with the arrival of studies into identical twins who had been separated at birth and reunited as adults. Over two decades 137 sets of twins eventually visited Thomas Bouchard’s lab….”

–  lived apart= been separated at birth

10. D (chemicals)

Question: In epigenetic processes, 10………….. influence the activity of our genes, for example in creating our internal 11…………..

Keywords: influence, genes, creating internal

In paragraph 7, the writer says that “Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions tied to neither nature nor nurture but representing what researchers have called a ‘third component’. These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened, even turned on or off, to build our bones, brains and all other parts of our bodies”

–  the activity of our genes ~ how our genetic code is expressed

–  organs ~ brains and all other parts of our bodies

–  create=build

11. B (organs)

Question: In epigenetic processes, 10………….. influence the activity of our genes, for example in creating our internal 11…………..

Keywords: influence, genes, creating internal

In paragraph 7, the writer says that “Epigenetic processes are chemical reactions tied to neither nature nor nurture but representing what researchers have called a ‘third component’. These reactions influence how our genetic code is expressed: how each gene is strengthened or weakened, even turned on or off, to build our bones, brains and all other parts of our bodies”

–  the activity of our genes ~ how our genetic code is expressed

–  organs ~ brains and all other parts of our bodies

–  create=build

12. E (environment)

Question: The study of epigenetic processes is uncovering a way in which our genes can be affected by our……………

Keywords: uncovering a way, genes affected by

In paragraph 9, the writer says that “One way the study of epigenetics is revolutionizing our understanding of biology is by revealing a mechanism by which the environment directly impacts our genes.”

–  uncover=reveal

–  affect=impact

13. F (behaviour)

Question: One example is that if a pregnant rat suffers stress, the new-born rat may show problems in its…………..

Keywords: pregnant, new-born rat, problems

In paragraph 9, the writer says that “Studies of animals, for example, have shown that when a rat experiences stress during pregnancy, it can cause epigenetic changes in a fetus that lead to behavioral problems as the rodent grows up.”

–  suffers=experiences

14. B

Question: In the first paragraph, the writer makes a point that

In this paragraph, the writer explains that “Though we might think of film as an essentially visual experience, we really cannot afford to underestimate the importance of film sound.” Then, the writer details how important film sound is. So, he makes a point that it would be wrong to overlook the contribution of sound to the artistry of films.

–  underestimate=overlook

15. A

Question: One reason that the writer refers to Humphrey Bogart is to exemplify

Keywords: Humphrey Bogart, exemplify

In the second paragraph, the writer argues that “As is the case with stage drama, dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. Thus, for example, the actor Humphrey Bogart is the character Sam Spade; film personality and life personality seem to merge.” This means that Humphrey Bogart is mentioned to exemplify the importance of the actor and the character appearing to have similar personalities.

–  appearing to have similar personalities ~ film personality and life personality seem to merge

16. B

Question: In the third paragraph, the writer suggests that

In this paragraph, the writer says that “It is interesting to note that how dialogue is used… varies widely among films. For example, in the highly successful science-fiction film 2001, little dialogue was evident, and most of it was banal and of little intrinsic interest. In this way the film-maker was able to portray what Thomas Sobochack and Vivian Sobochack call, in An Introduction to Film, the ‘inadequacy of human responses when compared with the magnificent technology created by man and the visual beauties of the universe.” This means that the banal dialogue in this film has its own purpose.

–  dull=banal

17. D

Question: What does the writer suggest about Bringing Up Baby?

In paragraph 4, the writer argues that “The comedy Bringing Up Baby, on the other hand, presents practically non-stop dialogue delivered at breakneck speed. This use of dialogue underscores not only the dizzy quality of the character Katherine Hepburn, but also the absurdity of the film itself and thus its humor.” This means that the dialogue in this film emphasises key elements of the film.

–  key elements ~ the absurdity of the humor of the film

18. C

Question: The writer refers to the ‘click’ of a door to make the point that realistic sounds

Keywords: click, door, realistic sounds

In paragraph 5, the writer argues that “Synchronous sounds contribute to the realism of film and also help to create a particular atmosphere. For example, the ‘click’ of a door being opened may simply serve to convince the audience that the image portrayed is real, and the audience may only subconsciously note the expected sound. However, if the ‘click’ of an opening door is part of an ominous action such as a burglary, the sound mixer may call attention to the ‘click’ with an increase in volume; this helps to engage the audience in a moment of suspense.” This means that realistic sounds may be modified to engage the audience in a particular atmosphere or to convince them that something is really happening.

19. TRUE

Question: Audiences are likely to be surprised if a film lacks background music.

Keywords: surprised, lacks background music

In paragraph 7, the writer says that “We are probably all familiar with background music in films, which has become so ubiquitous as to be noticeable in its absence.”

20. TRUE

Question: Background music may anticipate a development in a film.

Keywords: background, anticipate, development

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that “In addition, background music often foreshadows a change in mood. For example, dissonant music may be used in film to indicate an approaching (but not yet visible) menace or disaster.”

–  anticipate=foreshadow

21. NOT GIVEN

Question: Background music has more effect on some people than on others.

Keywords: background, more effect

Background music is referred to in paragraphs 7 and 8, and its effects are discussed, but not in terms of comparing some people with others. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

22. TRUE

Question: Background music may help the audience to make certain connections within the film

Keywords: connections, within, film

In paragraph 8, the writer indicates that “Background music may aid viewer understanding by linking scenes.”

–  help=aid

–  audience=viewer

–  make connections within a film ~ linking scenes

23. FALSE

Question: Audiences tend to be aware of how the background music is affecting them

Keywords: audiences, aware, background, affecting

In the last paragraph, the writer says that “The effects of sound are often largely subtle and often are noted by only our subconscious minds. We need to foster an awareness of film sound as well as film space so as to truly appreciate an art form that sprang to life during the twentieth century – the modern film.” This means that audiences have not been aware/have not been conscious of how background music is affecting them. Therefore, the writer adds, audiences should be made aware of the effect of background music.

24. C

Question: The audience’s response to different parts of a film can be controlled

Keywords: response, different parts, controlled

In paragraph 1, the writer states that “The entire sound track consists of three essential ingredients: the human voice, sound effects and music. These three tracks must be mixed and balanced so as to produce the necessary emphases which in turn create desired effects”. So, the reaction of the audience can be influenced if voice, sound and music are combined appropriately.

–  combined appropriately ~ mixed and balanced.

25. A

Question: The feelings and motivations of characters become clear

Keywords: feelings, motivations, clear

In paragraph 2, the writer says that: “…dialogue serves to tell the story and expresses feelings and motivations of characters as well. Often with film characterization the audience perceives little or no difference between the character and the actor. Thus, the dialogue makes the character and the actor seem to be the same person, and so the audience have no difficulty in understanding the feelings and motivations of the characters in films.

26. E

Question: A character seems to be a real person rather than an actor

Keywords: real person, actor

In paragraph 3, the writer says that “When voice textures fit the performer’s physiognomy and gestures, a whole and very realistic person emerges.” This means that a character seems to be a real person rather than an actor when the audience listens to the voice, looks at the appearance of the character and watches how he/she moves.

–  actor=performer

–  appearance=physiognomy

–  moves=gestures

–  consistent with=fit

27. vi

Paragraph A

In paragraph A, the writer emphasizes the importance of the invention of language compared to other inventions. “Of all mankind’s manifold creations, language must take pride of place… Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it.” So, the correct heading for this paragraph is why language is the most important invention of all.

–  language is the most important invention ~ language must take pride of place

28. iv

Paragraph B

In this paragraph, the writer says that “In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity.” Then, at the end of this passage, the writer concludes that “Language is mankind’s greatest invention – except, of course, that it was never invented. This apparent paradox is at the core of our fascination with language, and it holds many of its secrets.” So, this paragraph is all about incompatible characteristics of language.

–  incompatible characteristics=paradox

29. ii

Paragraph C

In this paragraph, the writer refers to “…barely three dozen measly morsels of sound”. “In themselves, these configurations of mouth – p, f, b, v, t, d, k, sh, a, e and so on – amount to nothing […] But run them through the cogs and wheels of the language machine, let it arrange them in some very special orders, and there is nothing that these meaningless streams of air cannot do: from sighing the interminable boredom of existence to unravelling the fundamental order of the universe.” This means that if these sounds are organised, they can convey a huge range of meaning.

–  organised ~ let it arrange them in some very special orders

30. vii

Paragraph D

In this paragraph, the writer states that “The language machine allows just about everybody […] to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without the slightest exertion.” So, the correct heading of this paragraph is the universal ability to use language.

–  universal=just about everybody

31. i

Paragraph E

In this paragraph, the writer says that “Often, it is the only estrangement of foreign tongues, with their many exotic and outlandish features, that brings home the wonder of language’s design.” Then the writer takes an example of a Turkish word of breath-breaking length which English takes a whole sentence to say. So, the correct heading of this paragraph is differences between languages highlight their impressiveness.

32. v

Paragraph F

In this paragraph, the writer discusses Sumerian, which was the language spoken on the banks of the Euphrates some 5,000 years ago. But the most important point he makes in this paragraph is “even the absence of a sound has been enlisted to express something specific.”… “The technology is so fine-tuned then that even a non-sound, when carefully placed in a particular position, has been invested with a specific function.” So, the correct heading of this paragraph is even silence can be meaningful.

–  silence=absence of a sound

33. E (material)

Question: The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on 33……………. aspects of life, but no impact has been as 34……………. as that of language.

Keywords: wheel, invention, impact, aspects

In the first paragraph, the writer states that “Other inventions – the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread – may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human. Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it.” This means that the wheel has had a major impact on material aspects of life, but no impact has been as important (fundamental) as that of language, because every other invention owes its origin to language – language is fundamental.

–  had a major impact on=transformed

–  aspects of life=existence

34. G (fundamental)

Question: The wheel is one invention that has had a major impact on 33……………. aspects of life, but no impact has been as 34……………. as that of language.

Keywords: wheel, invention, impact, aspects

In the first paragraph, the writer states that “Other inventions – the wheel, agriculture, sliced bread – may have transformed our material existence, but the advent of language is what made us human. Compared to language, all other inventions pale in significance, since everything we have ever achieved depends on language and originates from it.” This means that the wheel has had a major impact on material aspects of life, but no impact has been as important (fundamental) as that of language, because every other invention owes its origin to language – language is fundamental.

–  had a major impact on=transformed

–  aspects of life=existence

35. B (complex)

Question: Language is very 35……………., yet composed of just a small number of sounds.

In paragraph B, the writer argues that “In its own right it is a tool of extraordinary sophistication, yet based on an idea of ingenious simplicity.” He refers to it as: “this marvellous invention of composing out of twenty-five or thirty sounds that infinite variety of expressions….’ This means that language is very sophisticated, or complex.

–  a small number ~ twenty-five or thirty

–  complex ~ an infinite variety of expressions

36. F (easy)

Question: Language appears to be 36…………… to use. However, its sophistication is often overlooked.

Keywords: appears, sophistication, overlooked

In paragraph D, the writer claims that “The most extraordinary thing about language is that one doesn’t have to be a genius to set its wheels in motion. The language machine allows just about everybody […] to tie these meaningless sounds together into an infinite variety of subtle senses, and all apparently without the slightest exertion.” This means that language appears to be easy to use.

37. NO

Question: Human beings might have achieved their present position without language.

Keywords: present position, without language

In the first paragraph, the writer argues that “Without language, we could never have embarked on our ascent to unparalleled power over all other animals, and even over nature itself.” So, the statement is false.

38. YES

Question: The Port-Royal grammarians did justice to the nature of language.

Keywords: Port-Royal grammarians, justice

In paragraph B, the writer says that “This was how, in 1660, the renowned French grammarians of the Port-Royal abbey near Versailles distilled the essence of language, and no one since has celebrated more eloquently the magnitude of its achievement.” By summarising in beautiful words what language has enabled us to achieve, these grammarians did justice to its importance. So, the statement is true.

–  nature=essence

39. NOT GIVEN

Question: A complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word.

Keywords: complex idea, clearly, sentence

In this passage, the writer does not mention whether a complex idea can be explained more clearly in a sentence than in a single word. Sentences are mentioned in paragraph E, but only to note that one word in Turkish requires a whole sentence in English to explain it. So, the statement is NOT GIVEN.

40. YES

Question: The Sumerians were responsible for starting the recording of events.

Keywords: Sumerians, recording events

In paragraph F, the writer says that “And if that sounds like some one-off freak, then consider Sumerian, the language spoken on the banks of the Euphrates some 5,000 years ago by the people who invented writing and thus enabled the documentation of history.” So, the statement is true.

–  recording of events=documentation of history

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