1. Nowadays environmental problems are too big to be managed by individual persons or individual countries. In other words, it is an international problem. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
An essential problem of the 21st century is world pollution. Currently the environment is so much contaminated that urgent measures should be taken. The single individual cannot be blamed for the world pollution, however every person should take care of his or her habitat. In addition, it is vital that environmental issues should be treated internationally.
Lately, many presentations, conferences and international summits are held regarding waste treatment, recycling, soil and water contamination. For sure joint efforts and consolidation can only help in the mutual war towards the environmental disaster, which is going on. For instance, governments should offer support to companies and organizations, involved in manufacturing, industry or agriculture in order to find environment friendly approaches. These could be special law regulations, recycling programs, helping courses in order to implement ISO certificates and many more.
However, the influence of individuals over environment should not be ignored. If we do not confess that our planet is our home, we will never be able to take adequately care of it. We have to contribute every day to the preservation of nature and environment. For example, always remember to save energy by switching off lamps, computers and everything that we do not use. Our next obligation is to separate waste and throw bulk only in the designated areas. Driving vehicles can also be environment friendly. For example, we have to avoid accelerating the engines too rapidly or using the air condition in the country, where it will be better to save energy and simply open the windows.
To sum up, environmental problems should be handled by local and international authorities also. Every single person should take care of environment and moreover we have to bring up our children to be conscious citizens of a clean and preserved planet.
2. Nowadays we are producing more and more rubbish.
Why do you think this is happening?
What can governments do to help reduce the amount of rubbish produced?
I think it is true that in almost every country today each household and family produces a large amount of waste every week. Most of this rubbish comes from the packaging from the things we buy, such as processed food. But even if we buy fresh food without packaging, we still produce rubbish from the plastic bags used everywhere to carry shopping home.
The reason why we have so much packaging is that we consume so much more on a daily basis than families did in the past. Convenience is also very important in modern life, so we buy packaging or canned food that can be transported from long distances and stored untill we need it, first in the supermarket, and then at home.
However, I think the amount of waste produce is also a result of our tendency to use something once and throw it away. We forget that even the cheapest plastic bag has used up valuable resources and energy to produce. We also forget that it is a source of pollution and difficult to dispose of.
I think, therefore, that governments need to raise this awareness in the general public. Children can be educated about environmental issues at school, but adults need to take action. Governments can encourage such action by putting taxes on packaging, such as plastic bags, by providing recycling services and by thing households and shops that do not attempt to recycle their waste.
With the political will, such measures could really reduce the amount of rubbish we produce. Certainly nobody wants to see our resources used up and our planet poisoned by waste.
3. Scientists and the news media are presenting ever more evidence of climate change. Governmnets cannot be expected to solve this problem. It is the responsibility of individuals to change their lifestyle to prevent further damage.
What are your views?
Recently scientists worried about climate change have urged governments to introduce measures to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that are seen as its main cause. Simultaneously, politicians and environmentalists have urged individuals to make changes to their lifestyle. I shall argue that governments and individuals should take join responsibility for this problem.
Firstly, industry accounts for a large proportion of the greenhouse gas emissions, and this can only be controlled by government action. Measures could be taken to discourage pollution, such as limiting or taxing the use of fossil fuels. Alternatively, subsidies could be offered to industries to clean up their production processes. If these ideas were adopted, I believe that businesses would regard pollution as a financial issue.
Secondly, only discussion between governments can ensure that solutions are successful. The Kyoto agreement, for example, tried to reach global agreement on how to address the problem. Without such co-operating, it seems to me that efforts to reduce fuel consumption are unlikely to be effective.
However, national and international policies will only succeed if individuals also change their lifestyle. For example, people could think more carefully about how they use energy in their homes. By using less electricity, installing energy-efficient light bulbs and electrical appliances, or investing in solar panels, individuals can make a real difference.
In addition, I think individual attitudes to transport need to change. Instead of making short tips by car, people could choose to walk, cycle, or take a bus. Since cars are a major source of the problem, changing our behaviour in this area would have a major impact.
In conclusion, I would maintain that only a combination of international agreement, national policies, and changes in individual behaviour will succeed in preventing further damage to the environment.
4. Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water.
Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
As human’s population is dramatically rising every year, people’s requirements are increasing too. We need more food, more fresh water, more places to live. As a result of this many parts of the world are losing essential and sometimes irreplaceable resources, such as forest, animals, or fresh water. In this essay I will focus on the threat of disappearing many wild animals.
The reason why I think that animals should be preserved is that all living creatures on this planet are connected with each other. So, the disappearance of only one species can cause dramatic changes in the planet and even death of many other living creatures. For example, the disappearance of bats will cause the huge increasing of insect population and this will reflect on all animals and plants. Another example is that if the population of bats increases, the population of insects will decrease significantly, and this will cause the disappearance of many plants because insects are the main pollinators. So, I think it is very important to preserve all species on our planet and live in harmony with our environment.
Another important reason why I think that animals should be saved is that I, personally, do not want my child to learn about different animals from books and not be able to see them alive. I think it is shameful for humankind to explain our children that we are the reason why those animals disappeared.
In conclusion, I would like to say that the issue about losing important natural resources is topical and open for debate nowadays. I believe that together people can make a difference. From my point of view, the first problem we should find a solution for is human’s overpopulation. As I mentioned above people’s demands are growing and this means we consume more and more natural resources. The second question, which is
on the list of most important issues, is pollution including the air pollution, water pollution, etc.
5. The rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world’s cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more.
Discuss possible ways to encourage the use of public transport.
Anyone who lives in a city is aware of the increasing number of cars on the road and the kinds of problems this creates: traffic jams, air pollution and longer commuting periods. As economies grow and access to cars spreads to increasing numbers of people, this trend is likely to worsen. The solution, it would seem, is for government to encourage the use of public transport in urban areas, thus decreasing dependence on the car.
One way to stimulate public transport use is to make private car use more expensive and inconvenient. The introduction of tolls along urban motorways has been successfully employed in many cities. Other such measures are high-priced permits for parking in urban areas and the restriction of parking to a limited number of cars. Faced with high costs or no place to park, commuters would perhaps be more willing to abandon their cars in favour of buses or trains.
There are also less punishing ways of spurring public transport use. The construction of free carparks at suburban train stations has proven successful in quite a number of countries. This allows commuters to drive part of the way, but take public transport into the central, most congested, urban areas.
Indeed, making public transport more comfortable and convenient should work to attract more commuters and decrease traffic congestion. Public transport that is convenient and comfortable retains its passengers, much like any business that satisfies its customers. The more commuters committed to taking public transport, the less congestion on city streets.
6. The earth is being filled with waste material such as plastic bags and other rubbish. Is this really happening? What are some solutions to this problem?
Over the past few decades, the increasing amount of industrial wastes and household garbage has become a major problem in many countries. People have questioned what caused this problem and what can be done to improve the situation. In my opinion, two of the most critical causes of this waste material problem are the increased consumption and a shortage of space for landfill.
To begin with, modern lifestyle has contributed greatly to the increasing amount of waste and garbage we produce everyday. In other words, we have turned into a materialistic and mass-consumption society where we use more and throw away more than ever before. Moreover, countries are running out of space to store garbage and waste material. In fact, securing land for waste disposal raises controversies in many countries.
To solve this intractable problem, every citizen needs to participate in producing less garbage. For example, we can bring our own personal shopping bags instead of using plastic bags provided by stores and shops. Besides, the government can enforce stricter laws on companies to use biodegradable packaging or use recycled material. Indeed, this alone can eliminate much of the waste which is sent to at land fills. Companies can also contribute by developing new raw material which is recyclable and will ultimately lead to less garbage. One good example of this is that tire companies develop new tires for cars which are not made of rubber but of new biodegradable material.
As discussed above, individuals, business and the government can share the responsibility to reduce the amount of waste material and to save the earth. I hope that in the future our offspring will be better off with the well-preserved environment.