EMPLOYER: Hello, is this John Murphy?

APPLICANT: Hi, yes it is.

EMPLOYER: Hi John, this is Ed Heisenburg from the Wild Dunes Spa and Resort calling about your application for our lifeguard (Example) position. Do you have a few minutes to talk?

APPLICANT: Yes, absolutely.

EMPLOYER: Great. Could you give me your address?

APPLICANT: Sure. My address is 45 Elsinore (Q1) Court.

EMPLOYER: I’m sorry, was that Eleanor? Could you spell that for me?

APPLICANT: Sure – it’s Elsinore. E-L-S-I-N-O-R-E.

EMPLOYER: Okay, thanks. And is this the number we should reach you at in the future? 099885767?

APPLICANT: No, this is my home phone, but let me give you my mobile phone number instead: 077896245 (Q2). Call me on that one.

EMPLOYER: Okay – I’ll make a note of that. Could you tell me your availability?

APPLICANT: Sure. I am usually available during afternoons or weekends.I would prefer not to be scheduled on weeknights because I work part-time as a waiter (Q3).

EMPLOYER: That shouldn’t be a problem, since we don’t stay open very late anyway. And do you have any other employment experience?

APPLICANT: Yes, I have worked at a few other places. I was the baseball coach (Q4) at Ridgemont High School last season.

EMPLOYER: I see. And do you have any other experience that you would like us to note on your application?

APPLICANT: Yes. Last year I worked at the beach as a rescue diver (Q5).

EMPLOYER: Rescue diver? That sounds intense!

APPLICANT: Well, it’s really just like being a lifeguard, except in the ocean instead of a pool. So kind of like being a lifeguard at the world’s largest pool.

EMPLOYER: Haha. I see.

EMPLOYER: So could you tell me about the relevant skills you have? I’m guessing a lot, given your experience.

APPLICANT: I am CPR certified and have 2 years of diving experience (Q6).

EMPLOYER: Great! It sounds like you are well qualified for this position. When does your CPR certification expire?

APPLICANT: Hm. I think in November, but let me quickly check my CPR card … actually, it expires in October (Q7).

EMPLOYER: Okay, so regardless you have it through the end of the summer. When is your ideal time to work?

APPLICANT: Since I work in the restaurant on weeknights, I like weekends best – specifically Saturday mornings (Q8).

EMPLOYER: I see. We do already have a lot of staff available on Saturdays, but I do need an early morning shift lifeguard. How early could you work Saturday morning?

APPLICANT: I can get there by 6.00 (Q9) if need be.

EMPLOYER: You’ll be happy to know we open a little later than that, but I’ll put you down for Saturday mornings here.

APPLICANT: Oh awesome! I can’t wait to get started.

EMPLOYER: How about you come in next Saturday, the 12th?

APPLICANT: That sounds good.

EMPLOYER: Great – we can figure out other shifts for you to work when you come in then. One last thing – just out of curiosity, where did you hear about us?

APPLICANT: I heard your ad on the radio (Q10) while I was driving this morning.

EMPLOYER: You know, I think you’re the first person who has responded to our radio ads. It’s almost always people who have seen us in the newspaper.

APPLICANT: Yeah, I don’t have time to read through the newspaper every morning. I have plenty of time in the car to listen to radio ads.

EMPLOYER: That makes sense. Well, thanks for your time, and we’ll look forward to seeing you on the 12th.



GEOFFREY: Good evening, I’m Geoffrey Miller, from the University of Nottingham Student Union. And in this week’s free class, Carlos Garcia is going to tell us about safety around campus. Over to you, Carlos.

CARLOS: Thank you, Geoffrey. And thank you for all of your attendance today. Also, I would like to thank the student union here at the university for organising this lecture (Q11).

Well, I have been serving and protecting the city of Nottingham for over 20 years now as a member of the police department. Does anyone know what type of crime is the most prevalent on campus? I heard someone say drugs and alcohol – that actually isn’t too much of an issue. Violence? Nope.

Actually, the biggest thing we worry about here is theft (Q12). The nature of crime on Nottingham’s campus is quite different from that of the surrounding areas.

Crime rates across the East Midlands are very difficult to control. We would like to see the rate stay the same for this calendar year, but it has been increasing steadily over the past three years. On campus, however, I’m happy to say that the overall crime rate has fallen this year (Q13). You wouldn’t think so if you have seen the extremely exaggerated stories in the media. The media has done nothing but cause more concern about crime in our area (Q14).

Even the crime shows you see today are a little bit farfetched, but at least viewers know they are not real events. We would really like to see more factual news articles out there so the public can have a rational sense of the safety level of our society.

OK, let’s move on to what to do when you see a crime. Do not get involved if at all possible, and do not draw too much attention to yourself by running away in a conspicuous manner. Though most likely (and hopefully) you will not have to experience this situation, if you are being mugged please do not try to resist. Instead, be compliant and, seek help after the incident (Q15).

Like I said, though, it is highly unlikely that you will find yourself amidst a crime, but it is important to be prepared should it ever happen. We find that educating students and staff on the correct precautions to take is the best way to increase your safety (Q16). Just remember to be smart when you’re out late at night, and avoid any area or person that looks suspicious. I know it sounds obvious, but I cannot stress this enough.

It is also not a bad idea to have your mobile phone with you at all times, but be careful. If you are chatting on your smart phone on your way home, you are a prime target for thieves. I’d like to see a show of hands – how many people have left work or the library after 10 p.m. to go home before? A lot of you, right? If you do have to go home late at night, please don’t walk home alone.

More often than not there is someone there that will be walking the same direction as you at some point. Walk home with a friend or coworker. Even if you must use your phone to call someone that is nearby to walk with you, it is always safer to walk home with someone (Q17).

So when you’re walking home, you may feel more comfortable with some sort of self-defense, such as pepper spray. Now, it’s your call whether you want to carry something like this or not. However, I absolutely advise against carrying a knife or any other offensive weapon. All too often they can be used against you if you are disarmed, putting yourself in more danger (Q18).

For all those interested, the recreation centre offers a free self-defense class to all students every Thursday evening. While obviously an introductory self-defense class may not equip you to fight off villains like a regular superhero, it does come in handy sometimes. After taking a self-defense class, you will surely be more aware of possible dangers (Q19) and how to deal with them.

So hopefully now you have a more complete understanding of the nature of crimes committed on your campus, and how to avoid being a victim. I know most students at the University of Nottingham are not the criminal types, but remember that there is no barrier like a wall (Q20) or something keeping nonstudents out. There is no army force securing the borders, and I doubt anyone wants it that way. The campus is generally a safe place, but it is not immune to small crimes once in a while.

Alright. That’s all I have to say for today. Stay safe!



TUTOR: Hi Bobby, go ahead and sit down. Tell me about your research project.

BOBBY: Well, I decided to research football, and keys for success on a football team.

TUTOR: That sounds great. What are the guidelines for the test? Did the teacher talk to you about it in class?

BOBBY: No, everything is on a handout (Q21) that was passed out. It says that the first draft is due at the end of next week, and the second and third are due later on in the month. I don’t understand why we have to keep revising and fixing it. Is this assignment really that important?

TUTOR: Well, this project is a major requirement for passing 11th grade English and will go on your permanent record (Q22).

BOBBY: Oh really? Does that mean it will affect what English level I am placed in next year?

TUTOR: Well, not exactly. You need a good grade to move on, but it is your overall grade and teacher recommendation that determines what level of English you are placed in next year. Anyway, tell me about your topic choice. Do you play football?

BOBBY: Well, actually it’s because my father loves the sport (Q23). He watches it every weekend.

TUTOR: Cool! It’s a good idea to report on something you’re interested in.

TUTOR: I see you worked hard calling players and the head coach to talk, so let’s see what information you got.

BOBBY: Well, you have to listen carefully to the first call on the recording. It’s really hard to hear because the background noise is louder than the person’s voice (Q24).

TUTOR: Yes, it is a bit tough to discern. I’m afraid the player’s answer is too short (Q25) as well. You will have to interview him again and try to get him to give a better answer.

BOBBY: Okay. I thought that might happen. I will call him again tomorrow.

TUTOR: Moving on, let’s look back at this question. You asked, “Tell me about a time when you learned a major life lesson through playing football, and explain how that has shaped the person and player you have become now, and how you hope to pass on that lesson.” It is a great idea for a question, but in an oral interview it is far too complex (Q26). I would advise you to break it up into multiple parts to get a better response.

BOBBY: I guess you’re right – I wouldn’t want to have to provide an answer to a question like that. I will simplify it. I found that when I asked players this question, it took too much time (Q27) because they were truggling to answer the question completely. In fact, this is the question Joe Billings was answering when the tape ran out.

TUTOR: He did tend to ramble on all the questions, didn’t he?

BOBBY: He sure did.

TUTOR: I would recommend that when you go back and interview players again that you use a more sophisticated recording device. This recording is spotty, which indicates that the equipment wasn’t working consistently (Q28).

BOBBY: Okay. I guess it probably wasn’t the best idea to use the sound recorder on my phone. Hey, could you give me some feedback on the content of the report itself?

TUTOR: Sure! Let’s start by focusing on your topic. While I like that you chose to cover football, it seems inexplicit (Q29). The keys for success of a player and team is quite an interesting topic, but what is your thesis? That is to say, what conclusions can you draw from your research? I would suggest coming up with a strong thesis statement and then shaping your report based on that.

BOBBY: Is it really too vague? I put a whole lot of facts into it. I list the top 10 goal-scorers in football history, and later on provide statistics for a few of the most famous coaches and their records as coaches.

TUTOR: I think that’s great that you included these facts, but I think you focused too much on the facts (Q30) and not enough on connecting these facts to make your point.

BOBBY: Ah, I see. Okay. So it looks like I have quite a bit of work to do before the deadline!



Good morning. Today I am going to cover the daunting task of giving a quality speech – a thought that makes most of us cringe. In fact, 90% of all people feel nervous about public speaking, about 10% of whom are described as genuinely terrified. Hopefully when we are finished here today, you all will be in the 10% of the population who do not feel nervous at all.

Did you know that lecturers tend to get more nervous (Q31) if the speech they are giving is an important one? It makes sense, right? You probably wouldn’t be nearly as nervous to address your residence hall about the proper use of the recycle and compost bins as you might be if you were asked to give the graduation speech to your entire 5,000-student class.

So what is it that makes some people completely comfortable in front of crowds? Some people think that the ability to give a good speech is a gift (Q32) that others are simply born with. This is almost never the case. Public speaking can be learned with practice.

The first, most important thing you can do to improve your confidence in delivering a speech is to prepare a quality speech. Honestly, while the content of your speech is relatively important, the audience will really only remember the last (Q33) sentence you say. It is a good idea to structure the rest of your speech to lead up to this last point to really drive your message home. This is a good way to ensure that your speech is well-organised (Q34).

Once you are confident in the quality of the speech you have written, the rest is just about your stage presence. Let’s go through some do’s and don’ts of public speaking.

First, you want to command the attention of the room. Do not – I repeat, do not proceed with your speech until the audience is paying attention (Q35). Even Martin Luther King, Junior’s I Have a Dream speech wouldn’t have made any difference in the world without the undivided attention of his audience.

To continue with the I Have a Dream example, one of the reasons that MLK was such an effective orator was his ability to speak with passion and engage with his audience. That sort of charisma does not come from reading straight from paper. Don’t get me wrong – it is a good idea to write your main ideas down on a note card, sheet of paper (Q36), or something. But one factor that will consistently lead to a boring, forgettable speech is writing down your entire speech. Do not write your full (Q37) speech down. If you are constantly reading your paper, you are not making eye contact with your audience, and thus failing to really express the feeling that goes with your ideas.

I advise you write one or two (Q38) ideas, so I f you suddenly draw a blank you have something to jog your memory. If you’ve written a good speech that you believe in, those ideas should be sufficient to keep you on track.

Once you have those ideas written down, give your speech a few practice runs in front of the mirror, into your sound recorder on your phone, or with a friend before it comes time to address a crowd. That way you can hear how the ideas come across, make sure there are no abrupt transitions, and find out whether you’re talking too fast or too slow. Timing is important – make sure you time (Q39) yourself beforehand to see how long your speech is. That is pretty much it! With practice you’ll be able to deliver an expert speech that engages and even maybe inspires your audience. Just remember – speak with emotion. No one wants to listen to someone reading from a script (Q40).

As I come to a close in my speech, I’ll point out that I have employed all of these tips that I have covered. I practiced my speech ahead of time and timed it, and I can even show you my one small index card with just three simple bullets on it. It’s as easy as that!

Section 1

1 Elsinore

2 077896245

3 waiter

4 baseball coach

5 rescue diver

6 diving experience

7 October

8 Saturday mornings

9 6 (o’clock)

10 (the) radio

Section 2

11 B

12 C

13 B

14 A

15 C

16 A

17 B

18 B

19 A

20 A

Section 3

21 C

22 B

23 B

24 D

25 F

26 G

27 E

28 C

29 A

30 B

Section 4

31 nervous

32 a gift

33 last

34 well-organised/ well-organized

35 paying attention

36 sheet of paper

37 full

38 one or two/ 1 or 2

39 time

40 a script

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