Hello, and welcome to “Under Pressure Enterprises”, Customer Service Department. This is Kelly. How may I help you?

HEWITT: Yes, I’m calling about one of your rice cookers I just purchased. (Example)

CR:         What seems to be the problem, sir?

H:           Seems? There’s no seeming about it! The blasted thing shoots hot steam all over the place, that’s what! It nearly scalded my hand when I went to open it. Why it could have killed the cat or something. It could have exploded and killed my wife and me!

CR:         Sir, sir, please calm down. As long as the steam escapes the cooker, it won’t explode.

H:           So you’re telling me there’s no problem! Are you calling me a liar?

CR:         Sir, no one is calling you a liar.

H:           Yes! So I demand a full refund!

CR:         Under Pressure will be happy to refund your money, sir. Now I just need some basic information.

H:           OK, OK. Sorry. I do tend to get a little hot under the collar. My wife tells me to slow down… So, what do you need to know?

CR:         Sir, don’t worry. I just need to ask you the model number of the cooker.

H:           Hmmm… where are my glasses? Ah, here! Let’s see… ah. It’s R242. (Q1)

CR:         R242. OK, and how much did you pay for the product?

H:           89.99 (Q2) pounds. It was on sale, I guess I should tell you.

CR:         Thank you, that’s honest of you. Now, where did you buy the cooker? Which store and which branch?

H:           At that big Electric Life appliance store downtown.

CR:         The City Centre Branch? (Q3)

H:           That’s the one.

CR:         And you say the problem is that the steam escapes?

H:           Yes, it does!

CR:         No problem, sir. If there’s steam escaping, clearly the cooker is broken or defective. So we have an R242 cooker with an escaping steam (Q4) problem. It was bought from Electric Life’s City Centre Branch for 89.99. Is that correct?

H:           Yes, that is correct.

CR:         Oh, I nearly forget. When did you buy the cooker?

H:           Just as soon as my wife got the crazy idea she’ll live longer if she stops eating good English food: roast beef and mash. No, all she says she wants is rice and vegetables and sauces you’d not soak your feet in!

CR:         Sir, sir! When did you buy it?

H:           Oh, there I go again. Let’s see… we bought it just six months ago! We hardly used it either. But six months? Is that too long? I mean for the warranty?

CR:         Very well, that’s well within the warranty period. Now, what’s your name and address?

H:           Name and address! What for?

CR:         Sir, it is company policy. If you want your money, you must in​ form me. Money you say? Oh, my name is Herbert Hewitt and my address is 84 Park Road. (Q5)

CR:         Is that here in Coventry?

H            Yes. The postal code is B0241DJ (Q6). But I don’t think sending things in the mail is very secure or very efficient. I mean…

CR:         Don’t worry, Mr. Hewitt, don’t worry. We can credit the money to your credit card (Q7). You do have one, don’t you?

H:           Yes, that’s how we paid for the cooker.

CR:         Oh, yes. We still have the number on computer. I only need to ask your card’s expiry date.

H:           I’m afraid I never give that sort of information out. I mean, once you have that, anyone could go charging things and…

CR:         Sir! I said your expiry date, not your card’s password.

H:           Oh, er, yes. Foolish me. Of course, you didn’t say “password”. Let’s see. That will be April 2008. (Q8)

CR:         April 2008. Very well, your card still has nearly two months left to go. We’ll get that refund (Q9) right to you, probably by five o’clock this evening.

H:           You had better! If I don’t get my money… wait, wait. Yes, I know I’m losing my temper again. I really am sorry. I haven’t had my medicine today.

CR:         And sir, just one more question for our record. How often do you go shopping at the City Centre Branch?

H:           Oh, well it’s hard to say. I suppose maybe once a month (Q10). But I can tell you this, if I don’t get my refund, I’ll never shop there again! (He hangs up the phone.)

CR:         (sigh) I think it’s time to start looking for another job!


Hello everyone, and welcome to the University of New South Wales.

The first thing I’d like to do at today’s Orientation Session is get you all oriented! That means tell you the location of some useful facilities and services. So, first of all, take out the maps we gave you all as you came in the door. The map is the big yellow sheet of paper.

As you can see on the map, North is at the top, South at the bottom, et cetera. Which way is North? Well, look through that window on my left, your right. See the rising sun? That would have to be East. So North must be directly behind me.

Now, we are at the campus’s Main Gate. The Recreational Facilities are on my right hand and its opposite is the Student Centre (Q11). No questions? Good. Pretty easy, right?

OK, did everyone eat breakfast at the Student Food Service this morning? Was the food good? Yes, yes. I am joking. I’ve eaten there, too.

So after a meal like that, you must be eager to go to a doctor. Right?

Well, I have good news for you: the Student Health Centre is located about half a kilometre straight north of here (Q12). Look on your maps. You see the street on the east side of this building? Ned Kelly Avenue?

Just follow that about 500 metres, and the Health Centre will be on your left at the third cross street. (Q12)

Now, I know you all just got here. So you must be wondering how to tell your folks you’ve arrived safely, how much you miss the dog, and how you already need more money. If you don’t have an Iphone, you probably are wondering where to find a computer. Well, I have good news. If you go straight out of its door and walk down the Garden Street, you’ll see the Internet Unit on your left side, just next to the Gym (Q13). The hours are posted on the door, and the computers are free, but you must bring your student ID card with you. Like I tell everyone, if you need help with anything, you can probably find it right here in the Student Centre.

Do you see the four buildings there between the Student Centre and the library? Those are the dormitories. The men’s dorms are the two on the south; the women’s the two on the north.

OK, I’m sorry to have to tell you, but the university has been doing a lot of repairs and remodelling, and it’s not all done yet. So there may be some small problems with your dorm rooms. Maybe the window doesn’t open. Maybe an air conditioner is missing or does not work. If there are any problems, you can go to the Complaint Office, which is right beside the Teaching Building between the Parker Street and the Crammer Street (Q14). Just tell them your problem and they should have it fixed by the time you graduate in four years. I’m joking, but please be patient. There are a lot of little things they need to take care of.

Tired of the school food? No? Give it a week. Or maybe you just need a place to get coffee in the wee hours of the night during one of those marathon study sessions. Either way, you definitely have to check out the little Cafe just past the women’s dormitories (Q15). They’ve got free Wi-Fi, so a lot of students saddle up with coffee and a bagel for hours on end to get work done.

As for the dorm rooms, I have some bad news and some good news.

The bad news is the rooms are small and you’ll probably be sharing space with at least three other students. The good news is that each room has its own bathroom (Q16). What’s good about sharing a bathroom with three strangers? Hmmm… good question. OK, call it bad news and worse news.

Hey, maybe try this for good news: each dorm has a kitchen. If you want to make snacks or meals, you can do it there. You can buy food containers (Q17) at any campus convenience store, so you can store your food in the kitchen. But a word of warning: you should definitely write your name on your food containers. Sad to say, there are food thieves among your fellow students. Speaking of thieves, a word about security. I mean this is Australia and we do get drunken bushrangers wandering onto campus. Each of you will be given a key for your dorm room. Don’t lose it. You have to pay for any replacement and fill out a bunch of papers, too. Red tape, huh? Your key does not work for the front door of your dorm, however. To the right of each door, there is a keypad with numbers. When you move in, they will tell you the code (Q18) you use to enter the door. Please do not tell the code to people who do not live in the dorm.

Let’s see. Have I forgotten anything? Oh, yes. Most of you are not rich, correct? So when your clothes get dirty, you can’t just throw them away and buy new ones. That means you have to learn to do laundry. Or, men, that means you have to hurry up and get married.

If you decide to wash those clothes and not get married, there are laundries in each dorm. Where? Oh, I almost forgot to tell you. The laundry for each dorm is in the basement (Q19). Some real good news this time: if you are a student, it is free. You do have to buy your own soap, however. The laundry closes, by the by, at 11:30.

And, now that I’ve mentioned 11:30, please remember the dorm doors are locked at Q20 11:30 p.m. Your code will not work. If you want to get in, you’ll have to call the night watchman. Don’t worry, you can get that number at the Dorm Office. Yes, the Dorm Office and the Complaint Office are the same office. All right, then. Before we continue, are there any questions?




BETTY: Professor Dundee? We’re ready to make our presentation.

PROFESSOR: Oh, yes. I did say one o’clock, didn’t I? Please, sit down. So, who goes first? Bruce? Or you, Betty?

BETTY: I guess I could. Bruce is always a little shy.

PROFESSOR: Not after he’s had a lager for lunch, eh Bruce? BRUCE: Heh, heh. No, Betty really should go first.

BETTY: OK. Well, I’m reporting on the effects of different marketing strategies on the cheese and oil markets. Different strategies obviously affect the sales volume differently. I looked at the sales in two countries, New Zealand and Colombia.

PROFESSOR: And what did you find, pray tell?

BETTY: Well, in New Zealand, the sales of both oil and cheese have declined pretty steadily (Q21). And in fact, the sales have decreased more quickly than the population. On the other hand, in Colombia, the volume of sales for both products has remained the same. (Q22)

PROFESSOR: Wait, so you said sales in New Zealand have been going down?

BETTY: Correct. Suppliers have introduced two new upscale brands of each product, which are a bit expensive but very tasty. The big ad agencies are trying out a new series of ads that shift the focus from health to great taste. They think that will get sales moving up in New Zealand, where the population is less affluent and gen​erally less health-conscious.

PROFESSOR: Brilliant. Thank you. And Bruce?

BRUCE: Uhhh… yeah. My report is about chocolate sales in Italy and Germany. The two countries’ marketers have found out that you have to market chocolate differently in each country.

PROFESSOR: For example?

BRUCE: In Italy, “Kostig”, the most expensive brand, pays shop owners to put the candy just about knee-high for an adult.

PROFESSOR: I don’t see…

BRUCE: For little kids, that’s about eye level! That bright red candy is the first one they see, so they buy it! Even better, they start telling their moms to buy it, too!

PROFESSOR: So, you mean…

BRUCE: Well, I mean, in Italy if you locate your product at the right location of shelves, sales do great (Q23). They say it doesn’t matter much what brand of chocolate you’re selling. As for Germany…

PROFESSOR: “Das Land der Schokolade”.


PROFESSOR: That’s German. It means “The Land of Chocolate”. Germans love the stuff, so people make a joke and call Germany that.

BRUCE: Oh… uh, right…

PROFESSOR: So, you were saying?

BRUCE: Well, like you pointed out, Germans love chocolate. But they’re thrifty. For a long time, the biggest selling brand was “Schmutzig”, mostly because it was the second cheapest, but didn’t taste too bad. (Q24)

PROFESSOR: Again brilliant! A pretty good job, both of you. Tell me, what do you plan to investigate next week?

BETTY: I’m especially interested in the effects of colour (Q25) on sales of products, so I’ll be looking at ads for cosmetics and cleaning products in the local market. You know, like the distinct orange colour of Mr. Muscle, lavatory cleaning products. (Q26)

BRUCE: And you, Bruce?

I’m focusing on the effects of different containers (Q27) on sales of cookies. So I’m going to look into packaging for cookies and how the materials (Q28) they use will affect the image (Q29), and in turn sales. You know, most containers are paper, but some expensive cookies come in metal boxes. The shiny metal boxes catch people’s attention and the image remains in the memory longer.

PROFESSOR: Well, it sounds like you two are all set. But as always in this course, I urge you both to pay much more attention to the advertisement (Q30) extensions. That’s often the key. Alright, any questions for me before you go.

BRUCE: No, I think I’m all set. Thanks!

Me too. Thanks, Professor Dundee. See you later.


Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. I’d like to take this opportunity to welcome you to our exhibition, “Two Centuries of the Bike”.

Let’s stroll around the exhibition, shall we?

Although there were a few early efforts back in the 1700s, you didn’t really see many bikes till, say, the 1830s in England. Bikes were a response to the rapid growth of cities early in the 19th century. Cities like London were getting too big to walk across! The early bike let people travel with less effort (Q31) than walking. Plus a bike was a lot cheaper than a horse!

Think of it. No one invented a bike for, what, five thousand years of human history? Why did people do it then? Probably because this was the start of the Machine Age: people wanted machines to do all the work.

There were some drawbacks, however. For one thing, there were no pedals. You simply pushed yourself along using your feet. Kind of like today’s skateboard. That meant you went fairly slowly. And uphill, you actually worked harder, pushing that two-wheeler. Plus, the wheels were made of wood covered with metal, as you can see from this model. So the downside was that the ride was quite uncomfortable (Q32) on most roads. Only a few gadget lovers had or used them.

By the 1860s (Q33), though, improvements were being made. As you can see from this specimen, metal frames had become the rule. They’re more durable than wood, and they don’t warp in the rain. The biggest improvement however was the development of the chain and sprocket system. They are connected (Q34). This meant you did not push the bike. You used pedals just like today. You had to try harder to balance, so it took some practice to figure out how to use the pedals. But it made the ride so much easier. As a result, the good thing was that you could ride a lot more smoothly (Q35) and with very little effort.

By the 1880s, another big change was the use of rubber wheels (Q36). These became pretty common at that time. Though the first ones were solid rubber, the ride was a good deal more comfortable than the old iron and wood system. This is a big consideration because the faster you go, the more you feel every bump. Air-filled tyres – “pneumatic tyres” – didn’t really come into use till around the year 1900, as you can see from this exhibition over here. That made the ride even more comfortable.

So, by 1890 or so, people were going a lot faster and a lot more smoothly. There was one problem when you were going quickly and comfortably: “OH NO! HOW DO I STOP?” Yes, we all laugh now.

But for a long time, the only way to stop was drag your feet. That didn’t work very well and it would be dangerous if you were going fast. In the crowded cities of those years – New York, Chicago, and so on, you would get killed if you couldn’t stop for, say, a streetcar.

Plus look at this bike. The front wheel is nearly a metre and two thirds tall! They made them that way so you could see over people and wagons. But you couldn’t drag your feet. This model is called a “velocipede” – a “speed pedal”. Another characteristic of the bike in this period is that it has two equal-sized wheels, which signalled a big change in bikes.

For with the velocipede, brakes appeared. If you wanted to stop, you just pushed the pedal backwards. Doing that stopped the back wheel of the bike. This technique worked a lot better than dragging your feet or jumping off the high seat there! This meant that bikes became a great deal safer (Q37). It would have been safer if people wore helmets, but the first bicycle helmet wasn’t invented until years later, and even then it was little more than a leather ballcap. It really wasn’t until the 1970s that the bike helmet was modified to provide some real protection.

Before continuing on to look at developments since the 1890s, let’s say a word more about safety. Everyone knows if you’re going downhill, you can get going dangerously fast. To go more than a hundred kilometres an hour isn’t all that difficult! But even on level ground it’s easy to go too quickly. On a city street, today’s bicycles can be ridden at a speed of over forty miles an hour, over a short distance. That’s about sixty-four kilometres an hour. Remember you’re on a bike, not in a car. There’s nothing to protect you. People are killed in single-bicycle accidents every day, just from hitting the road.

A good rule to remember is, if you’re going faster than the cars, slow down. And please wear a helmet. Nearly one quarter of the epilepsy cases come from head injuries in accidents on bikes and motorcycles. I didn’t mean to scare you, but safety is everyone’s business.

What? Now that’s a good question. Why are today’s bikes so much faster? Well, it’s not just that today’s athletes are faster. The answer is partly mechanical. If you look closely here, at the back wheel you’ll see a number of gears. Changing gears is what makes those fast speeds possible (Q38). You can shift gears depending on the terrain and how hard you wish to pedal. So you can put it on a higher gear for downhill, and a lower gear for uphill travel to make it easier to climb that slope (Q39). You’ll notice this gear-shifting mechanism is attached at the back wheel, and when the rider shifts on the handlebar gear shifter, the chain moves to the appropriate sprocket (Q40). And, speaking of changing gears, let’s look over here at our “Tour de France” exhibit…

Section 1

1 R242

2 89.99

3 City Centre/ City Center

4 steam escaping/ escaping steam

5 84 Park Rd/Road

6 B0241DJ

7 credit card

8 April 2008

9 refund

10 once a month

Section 2

11 E

12 A

13 B

14 D

15 C

16 bathroom

17 food containers

18 code

19 basement

20 11:30/ 11.30

Section 3

21 B

22 C

23-24 B, E

25 colour/ color

26 cleaning products

27 (different) containers

28 materials

29 image

30 advertisement

Section 4

31 less effort

32 uncomfortable

33 1860s

34 connected

35 more smoothly

36 rubber wheels

37 safer

38-40 C, D, F

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