You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
A bovid is any member of almost 140 species of ungulates belonging to the family Bovidae. The bovids are the largest family of hoofed mammals and are native to Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America. Members include antelope, bison, buffalo, cattle, sheep and goats. Bovids have mutually beneficial symbiotic relationships with bacteria and other microorganisms that allow the digestion of cellulose, the most abundant form of living terrestrial biomass, but one that is indigestible for many animals, including humans.
Bovids are not so common in endemic insular faunas and are mainly recorded in Southeast Asia, Japan and some Mediterranean islands. Ely the late Miocene, the bovids rapidly diversified, leading to the creation of 70 new genera. This late Miocene radiation was partly because most bovids became adapted to more open, grassland habitats. Some species of bovid are solitary, but others live in large groups with complex social structures.
All bovids have the similar basic form—a snout with a blunt end, one or more pairs of horns immediately after the oval or pointed ears, a distinct neck and a tail varying in length and bushiness among the species. However, the bovids show great variation in size: the gaur can weigh as much as 1,000kg and stands 2-3m high at the shoulder. The royal antelope, at the opposite extreme, is only 25cm tall and weighs at most 3kg.
Despite differences in size and appearance, bovids are united by the possession of certain common features. Being ruminants, the stomach is composed of four chambers: the rumen (80%), the omasum, the reticulum, and the abomasum. Bovids retain undigested food in their stomachs to be regurgitated and chewed again as necessary Bovids are almost exclusively herbivorous. Most bovids bear 30 to 32 teeth. While the upper incisors are absent, the upper canines are either reduced or absent. Instead of the upper incisors, bovids have a thick and tough layer of tissue, called the dental pad, which provides a surface to grip grasses and foliage. All bovids have four toes on each foot—they walk on the central two (the hooves), while the outer two (the dewclaws) are much smaller and rarely touch the ground. Bovid horns vary in shape and size: the relatively simple horns of a large Indian buffalo may measure around 4m from tip to tip along the outer curve, while the various gazelles have horns with a variety of elegant curves.
Bovids are the largest of 10 extant families within Artiodactyla, consisting of more than 140 extant and 300 extinct species. Fossil evidence suggests five distinct subfamilies: Bovinae (bison, buffalos, cattle, and relatives). Antelope (addax, oryxes, roan antelopes and relatives), Caprinae (chamois, goats, sheep, and relatives), Cephalophinae (duikers), and Antilocapridae (pronghorn). Unlike most other bovids, Bovinae species are ail non-territorial. As the ancestors of the various species of domestic cattle, banteng, gaur, yak and water buffalo are generally rare and endangered in the wild, while another ancestor, auroch, has been extinct in the wild for nearly 300 years.
Antelope is not a cladistic or taxonomically defined group. The term is used to describe all members of the family Bovidae that do not fall under the category of, cattle, or goats. Not surprisingly for animals with long, slender yet powerful legs, many antelopes have long strides and can run fast. There are two main sub-groups of antelope: Hippotraginae, which includes the oryx and the addax, and Antilopinae, which generally contains slighter and more graceful animals such as gazelle and the springbok. The antelope is found in a wide range of habitats, typically woodland, forest, savannah, grassland plains, and marshes. Several species of antelope have adapted to living in the mountains and rocky outcrops and a couple of species of antelope are even semi-aquatic and these antelope live in swamps, for instance, the sitatunga has long, splayed hooves that enable it to walk freely and rapidly on swampy ground.
Subfamily Caprinae consists of mostly medium-sized bovids. Its members are commonly referred to as the sheep and the goat, together with various relatives such as the goral and the tahr. The group did not reach its greatest diversity until the recent ice ages, when many of its members became specialised for marginal, often extreme, environments: mountains, deserts, and the subarctic region. Barbary and bighorn sheep have been found in arid deserts, while Rocky Mountain sheep survive high up in mountains and musk oxen in arctic tundra.
The duiker, belonging to Cephalophinae sub-family is a small to medium-sized species, brown in colour, and native to sub-Saharan Africa. Duikers are primarily browsers rather than grazers, eating leaves, shoots, seeds, fruit buds and bark. Some duikers consume insects and carrion (dead animal carcasses) from time to time and even manage to capture rodents or small birds.
The pronghorn is the only living member of the sub-family Antilocapridae in North America. Each “horn” of the pronghorn is composed of a slender, laterally flattened blade of bone that grows from the frontal bones of the skull, forming a permanent core. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the horn sheaths of the pronghorn are branched, each sheath possessing a forward-pointing tine (hence the name pronghorn). The pronghorn is the fastest land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, being built for maximum predator evasion through running. Additionally, pronghorn hooves have two long, cushioned, pointed toes which help absorb shock when running at high speeds.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.
1 Bovids mostly inhabit
C Southeast Asia.
D South America.
2 What are the most favorable locations for the existence of bovids?
A tropical forests
D open grassy areas
3 What is the common feature of idle bovid species?
A Their horns are short.
B They store food in the body.
C They have upper incisors.
D Their hooves are undivided.
Questions 4 – 8
Look at the following characteristics (Questions and the list of sub-families below).
Match each characteristic with the correct;
Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 4-8 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
4 can survive in harsh habitats.
5 move at a high speed.
6 origins of modern ox and cow.
7 does not defend a particular area of land.
8 sometimes take small animals as their food supply.
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
9 What is the smallest species of Bovids?
10 Which member of Bovinae has died out?
11 What helps sitatunga move quickly on swampy lands?
12 Where can Barbary sheep survive?
13 What is the only survivor of Antilocapridae?
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
The contribution of language to business
People say that business is all about relationships, but the truth is that business is really all about language communication. Languages make either a direct or indirect contribution to business and industry—from acquiring and retaining customers to improving employee engagement and performance. At the most fundamental level, business cannot happen without communication. This is even more true in the era of globalization. As geographic borders become porous and the world flattens, effective communication with customers, employees, partners, suppliers, and other stakeholders across the globe becomes essential to successfully running a company.
There is no universal agreement on how significant the language factor is; nor the degree of language proficiency in contribution to the success of business and industry. In large modern enterprises, people have the unique experience of working with thousands of organizations across different industries and sectors that are tackling this very problem. Companies adjust to these demographic, cultural, and economic trends and proactively build workforces with the skills and capabilities needed to grow and thrive in this multicultural and international economy. Although the combination of business functions and processes impacted by improved communication may vary from company to company, language skills consistently deliver tangible business value and result for organizations that invest in language training.
Although English is dominant for international transactions, many business people also think and deal in scores of languages. Companies that operate solely in English will miss opportunities to capitalize on the explosive growth in developing and untapped markets at home and abroad. These companies also run the risk of misunderstandings with customers, and with members of an increasingly global workforce. Moreover, travellers on business need to have different levels of language proficiency. On a basic level, they are able to use the language at the airport and to check in at the hotel. Besides, they need a high language proficiency to deal with workers at their offshore factories.
One of the biggest business advantages of a workforce that can effectively communicate in more than one language is the ability to reach new markets—both at home and abroad. On the domestic side, for example, the U.S. has become even more of a melting pot than in the past, with minorities accounting for a greater proportion of the total population. Accordingly, in domestic venues, the consumer contacts and service activities also ask for workers with good skills of different languages, such as at restaurants or in duty-free stores.
The language proficiency needed to hold a conversation is quite different from that needed for negotiating. Receptionists and telephonists are the first point of contact between firms. The language proficiency they need is to gather basic factual information. Yet negotiating well in another language is one of the most difficult skills, especially nowadays when it is often done at a distance by videoconference, teleconference or email. It is also one of the most important things to do well, with usually a clear financial penalty for doing it badly. To really master the negotiating skill, negotiators need a thorough understanding of the very many phrases they might hear during a negotiation and an ability to show fine shades in meaning in their own contributions. Similar to negotiating, certain occupations like shipping, also require unbroken and detailed communication between officials.
When it comes to negotiation, the interpreters and translators are needed. Interpreters and translators aid communication by converting messages or text from one language into another language. Although some people do both, interpreting and translating are different professions: interpreters work with spoken communication, and translators work with written communication. The selection of interpreters and translators is critical. Both the loyalty and accuracy of the interpreters and translators must be put at the top of agenda. Thus, loyalty to the speaker and the original appears to be a hallmark of professionals more so than of amateurs.
Who can judge the performance of the interpreters? A person with language proficiency is needed in the negotiating team to check on the interpreters, guaranteeing the quality and accuracy of the interpretation. Listeners are presumably listening only to the output and as such not aware of the structure of the source speech. Only an experienced expert will understand the constraints of any given situation and be in a position to judge. Only she (or he) can assess just how the speed, density and complexity of the speech will affect interpretation in any particular language combination. And even this task is not easy: interpreters are trained to listen and speak at the same time, not to listen to two different audio streams. Therefore, the check-on is best accomplished by those trained to teach or with enough experience to have mastered this skill.
Businesses may ask help from local consultants who are responsible for hiring local workers or train company managers to deal with local consumers. That was the case with CommScope, a multibillion dollars telecom equipment manufacturer with customers, employees, and partners in 18 countries across the world. In the wake of these transactions, the company began offering Jacqueline K. Crofton, a local resident, language training to key employees and executives. The goal of the training was not to make employees fluent in the new language, as much as to give them a degree of functional proficiency. “In order to advance well in new markets and with new customers, we had to be able to at least understand and communicate at a basic level, even with the use of interpreters,” says David Hartsoe, manager of CommScope’s Global Learning Center. In the long run, effective communication will definitely help their employees stay positive and productive.
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say that the writer thinks about this
14 There are two types of contribution that languages make to business.
15 All businesses have recognized the importance of language to business.
16 English is the most important language for all business purposes.
17 Senior executives, especially, need to be fluent in the language of their trading partners.
18 Travellers on business need several different levels of language proficiency.
19 Some businesses provide interpreter training to their employees.
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 20-23 on your answer sheet.
20 What level of language proficiency are the workers required in the duty-free stores?
21 Who are the first people the client usually have a contact within business?
22 Which industry is high language proficiency essential to?
23 What business are interpreters and translators needed for?
Questions 24 – 26
Choose the correct letter; A, B, C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.
24 One of the most important qualities of the interpreter is
A common sense.
B industry knowledge and contacts.
C appropriate reaction.
25 A qualified interpreter is essential to the business for
A ensuring cultural appropriateness.
B accuracy of information.
C success in trading.
D financial reasons.
26 In the writer’s opinion, hiring an indigenous person to improve the dialect language proficiency of the company staff is
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Agricultural and tourism
Agricultural tourism is a worldwide trend which offers city dwellers a chance to escape urban concrete and re-discover their rural roots. In addition, visiting farmers, agronomists and other agricultural experts can evaluate worldwide developments in agriculture, which have been greatly influenced by modern technology. Agriculture and tourism—two of Wisconsin’s most important industries—are teaming up in southwestern Wisconsin. A pilot project has found that tourists, rural communities, and some farmers could benefit from stronger efforts to promote and market agricultural tourism there. More than one-half of those surveyed responded favourably to a proposed tour, saying they would be interested in participating in some types of agricultural tour in southwestern Wisconsin.
In 1990, agricultural tourism project members surveyed 290 visitors to the annual Monroe Cheese Festival and 164 visitors to the Picnic on the Farm, a one-time event held in Platteville in conjunction with the Chicago Bears summer training camp. Survey respondents reported that they would prefer to visit cheese factories, sausage processing plants, dairy farms, and historical farm sites, as well as enjoy an old-fashioned picnic dinner. The study also found strong interest in visiting specialty farms (strawberries, cranberries, poultry, etc.). More than 7 5 percent of the Cheese Day visitors planned ahead for the trip, with 3 7 percent planning at least two months in advance. More than 40 percent of the visitors came to Monroe for two- or three-day visits. Many stopped at other communities on their way to Cheese Days. Visitors at both events indicated that they were there to enjoy themselves and were willing to spend money on food and arts and crafts. They also wanted the opportunity to experience the “country” while there.
The study found that planning around existing events should take into account what brought visitors to the area and provide additional attractions that will appeal to them. For example, visitors to Cheese Days said they were on a holiday and appeared to be more open to various tour proposals. Picnic visitors came specifically to see the Chicago Bears practice. They showed less interest in a proposed agricultural tour than Cheese Day visitors, but more interest in a picnic dinner. (The table below results from the 1990 survey of Monroe Cheese Days and Picnic on the Farm visitors and shows how the visitors would rank various activities in the proposed tour.)
Interest in specific activities in proposed tour
Cheese Days (Rank)
Cheese Factory Visit
Sausage Processing Visit
Dairy Farm Visit
Historical Farm Visit
Crop Farm Visit
Agricultural tourism can serve to educate urban tourists about the problems and challenges facing farmers, says Andy Lewis, Grant county community development agent. While agriculture is vital to Wisconsin, more and more urban folk are becoming isolated from the industry. In fact, Lewis notes, farmers are just as interested in the educational aspects of agricultural tours as they are in any financial returns. “Farmers feel that urban consumers are out of touch with farming,” Lewis says. “If tourists can be educated on issues that concern farmers, those visits could lead to policies more favourable to agriculture.” Animal rights and the environment are examples of two issues that concern both urban consumers and farmers. Farm tours could help consumers get the farmer’s perspective on these issues, Lewis notes.
Several Wisconsin farms already offer some types of learning experience for tourists. However, most agricultural tourism enterprises currently market their businesses independently, leading to a lack of a concerted effort to promote agricultural tourism as an industry. Lewis is conducting the study with Jean Murphy, assistant community development agent. Other participants include UW-Platteville Agricultural Economist Bob Acton, the Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems, UW-Extension Recreation Resources Center, the Wisconsin Rural Development Center, and Hidden Valleys, a Southwestern Wisconsin regional tourism organization.
This past fall, Murphy organized several workshops with some Green and Grant County farmers, local business leaders, and motor coach tour operators to discuss how best to organize and put on farm tours. Committees were formed to look at the following: tour site evaluations, inventory of the area’s resources, tour marketing, and familiarization of tours. The fourth committee is organizing tours for people such as tour bus guides and local reporters to help better educate them about agricultural tourism. Green County farmers already have experience hosting visitors during the annual Monroe Cheese Days. Green County Tourism Director Larry Lindgren says these farmers are set to go ahead with more formal agricultural tours next year. The tours will combine a farm visit with a visit to a local cheese factory and a picnic lunch.
Another farm interested in hosting an organized tour is Sinsinawa, a 200-acre Grant County farm devoted to sustainable agriculture and run by the Dominican Sisters. Education plays a major role at the farm, which has an orchard, dairy and beef cows, and hogs. Farm tours could be combined with other activities in the area such as trips to the Mississippi River and/or visits to historical towns or landmarks, Lewis says. The project will help expose farmers to the tourism industry and farm vacations as a way to possibly supplement incomes, he adds. While farm families probably wouldn’t make a lot of money through farm tours, they would be compensated for their time, says Lewis. Farmers could earn additional income through the sale of farm products, crafts, and recreational activities.
Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
27 Nearly half of all the surveyed tourists would spend several days in Monroe.
28 Most visitors responded positively to a survey project on farm tours.
29 Cooperation across organisations in research for agriculture tours has been carried out.
30 Agriculture tours help tourists understand more about zoological and ecological issues.
Which of the following statements belongs to the visitor categories in the box?
Please choose A, B or C for each statement.
Write the correct letter A, B or C, in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once
A Cheese Festival visitors
B Picnic visitors
C Both of them
31 have a focused destination.
32 majority prepare well before going beforehand.
33 were comparably less keen on picnic meals.
34 show interest in activities such as visiting factories and fruit farms.
35 are willing to accept a variety of tour recommendations.
Questions 36 – 40
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 3, using the list of words, A-K, below.
Write the correct letter, A-K, in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
Through farm tours, visitors can better understand significant issues such as 36……………….. and the environment. In autumn, Murphy organized 37……………….. and brought other participants together to develop the local tour market. Larry Lindgren said that the farmers already had experience of organising farm tours that also included a visit to the factory and a 38………………… Sinsinawa, a large farm, which is managed and operated by 39……………….., contains an orchard, cows, etc. Lewis said the project would probably bring extra 40………………..for local farmers.
A urban consumers
C community development
E animal rights
G Dominican Sisters
H historical towns
I Andy Lewis
9. royal antelope
11. (long, splayed) hooves
12. (arid) deserts
17. NOT GIVEN
19. NOT GIVEN
20. good (skills)
21. receptionists and telephonists