You should spend about 20 minutes on this task


The chart below gives information about the growth of urban population in certain parts of the world including the prediction of the future.

Write at least 150 words.


You should spend about 40 minutes on this task

Write about the following topic:


In some countries, young people have become richer, healthier, and live longer, but they are less happy.
What are the causes?
What can be done to address this situation?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Write at least 250 words.


Report Plan:

–  Paraphrase paragraph: gives information about>compares; growth>increase; prediction>projected

–  Overview/summary paragraph: (1) percentage of urban population rose in all 3 regions and the world from 1950 to 2000 (2) it is forecast to rise further by 2030

–  Paragraph 3: report figures and trends globally; report figures and trends for Latin America

–  Paragraph 4: compare the similar figures and trends for Africa and Asia in the whole period


The bar chart compares urban population increase in 3 regions and in the whole world in 1950, 2000 and projected growth by 2030.

Overall, the proportion of the population living in cities rose in 2000 compared with 1950 in all regions and in the world as a whole. It is forecast to rise further by 2030.

In 1950, the percentage of urban dwellers in the world stood at 30%, but by 2000 almost half of the world’s population lived in urban centres. By 2030 the figure is expected to rise to 60%. Latin America had the highest proportion of people living in towns and cities, rising from about 40% in 1950 to 70% in 2000, with a predicted
further increase to 80% in 2030.

The figures and trends for Africa and Asia are similar. In Africa, about 11% of the population were urban dwellers in 1950, compared with 12% in Asia. In 2000 this increased to almost 40% in both continents. By 2030, the figures are projected to reach 50% in Africa and 55% in Asia.

176 words


Essay Plan:

–  Introduction: refer to the task question. There is one major cause, and steps should be taken to deal with this
–  Paragraph 2: the major cause – advertising. Youngsters are influenced by marketing (give examples), but having more possessions does not bring happiness
–  Paragraph 3: the solutions – ban advertising and encourage people to be active in, for example, sport and music, not passive consumers of the latest products
–  Conclusion: restrict marketing and encourage young people to participate actively – this will result in more happiness


It is true that, particularly in developed countries, the youth of today enjoy longer lives and better health, but are not necessarily happier, despite all the material possessions that they have. I would argue that there is one principal reason why they are not happier, and some steps should be taken to deal with this situation.

The influence of commercial advertising is at the root of the dissatisfaction of today’s youngsters. Young people have become a target audience for the marketing industry, even children of 5 years old or younger. They are swayed by advertisements to adopt the values of the consumer society, possessing more and more things which, they are told, will bring them happiness, such as toys, electronic goods, a McDonald’s burger or the latest fashions. TV channels and online advertising persuade young people to buy goods impulsively. However, all this personal consumption has failed to bring happiness, and the false promises have resulted in disillusionment among young people.

Governments could immediately address this problem. They must introduce restrictions on advertising, and it would be even more effective to impose an official ban on all marketing. National and local authorities should allocate resources to schools to provide opportunities for young people to participate actively in sports or to take up a musical instrument. This will bring much more happiness and social interaction into the lives of today’s youth, rather than being passive individual consumers of everything, from violent video games to junk food. These two
measures would certainly help efforts to bring more fulfilment and happiness into the lives of today’s youth.

In conclusion, by taking steps to curb the activities of the marketing industry, governments could help young people to develop into happier citizens of the future.

289 words


Vocabulary from media and advertising:

–  commercial advertising
Meaning: advertising on the radio or television, between or during programmes.

Example: Commercial advertising on television provides the revenue for most TV channels.

–  target audience
Meaning: consumers whom businesses aim at when selling their products

Example: Companies which sell soft drinks, like Coca Cola, aim mainly at a target audience of children and adolescents.

–  to be swayed by advertisements
Meaning: to be influenced to buy things as a result of advertising

Example: If consumers were not easily swayed by advertisements, the advertising industry would not exist.

–  to buy goods impulsively
Meaning: to buy things suddenly without any planning and without considering the effects they may have

Example: Advertising motivates consumers to buy goods impulsively.

Vocabulary from society:

–  the consumer society

Meaning: a society in which buying and selling are considered extremely important
Example: Money and possessions are considered to be more important than family and friends in today’s consumer society.

Vocabulary from government:

–  to introduce restrictions on
Meaning: to limit what people can do or what can happen

Example: The government must introduce restrictions on smoking in public places.

–  to impose an official ban on
Meaning: to say or declare that something is not allowed

Example: Governments ought to impose an official ban on the use of mobile phones on public transport.

–  national and local authorities
Meaning: government organizations acting at a national level or within a smaller, local area
Example: Tackling crime is a responsibility of both national and local authorities.

–  to allocate resources to
Meaning: to make money and materials available to do something

Example: If governments allocate more resources to improving public transport, this will reduce the problem of traffic congestion in cities.

Vocabulary from the arts:

–   to take up a musical instrument
Meaning: to start to learn to play a musical instrument

Example: Schools should encourage all those children who have an interest to

take up a musical instrument.

Vocabulary from food and diet:

–  junk food
Meaning: food that is quick and easy to prepare and eat, but that is thought to be bad for your health

Example: The consumption of too much junk food is a major factor in the increase of childhood obesity.

Other vocabulary:

–  at the root of [expression]:
Meaning: the main cause of something, such as a problem or difficult situation
Example: What lies at the root of his problem is his lack of money.

–  to adopt [verb]:
Meaning: to formally accept a suggestion or policy
Example: The government is expected to adopt the new policy next year.

–  disillusionment [noun]:
Meaning: disappointment, because the idea that you believed was good and true now seems without value
Example: You can imagine John’s disillusionment when his favourite rock star was put in prison for taking drugs.

–  to curb [verb]:
Meaning: to control or limit something, especially something bad
Example: There is a new law to curb emissions from cars.

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